Personal Development, Health & PE


































A Curriculum Framework for Seventh-day Adventist Secondary Schools



The South Pacific Division Curriculum Unit has enlisted the help of a number of teachers in preparing this document.  We would like to thank all who have contributed time, ideas, materials and support in many tangible and intangible ways.


Some of the content of the framework has been adapted from the Framework for Social Studies K-12 developed under the auspices of the North American Division Office of Education.  We gratefully acknowledge our indebtedness to this document.


In particular, we would like to thank the members of the History Curriculum Groups who wrote and edited the document.  One group met in April 1986, and the other group met in March 1989.  The group members were:

First Edition

Ormand Howard                                        Warburton Adventist High School

Colin Louwen                                             Albury Adventist High School

Peter Lyndsay                                            Sydney Adventist High School

David Martin                                              Avondale College

Wayne Miller                                              Avondale College

Lance Nilsson                                             Avondale High School

Jack Ryan                                                  Auckland Adventist High School

Julia Young                                                 Sydney Adventist High School

Second Edition

Shelley Mathews                                         Brisbane Adventist College

David Martin                                              Macquarie College

Quentin Oaklands                                       Carmel Adventist College

Darryl Scale                                                Gilson College


It is our wish that teachers will use this document to improve their teaching and so better attain the key objectives of Seventh-day Adventist education.




Barry Hill

Director Secondary Curriculum Unit





South Pacific Division

Seventh-day Adventist Church

Department of Education

148 Fox Valley Road                                                               February 1999

WAHROONGA NSW 2076                                                   Second Edition



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS         .         .         .         .                  .         .         2

TABLE OF CONTENTS  .         .         .         .         .                            .         3

WHAT IS A FRAMEWORK?              .         .         .                            .         4

USING THE FRAMEWORK               .         .         .                            .         5

SECTION 1  Philosophy            .         .         .         .                                     6

Philosophy        .           .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           7

Rationale          .           .           .           .           .           .           .           .                                   8

Values-Oriented Objectives      .           .           .                                   .           .           .           9

SECTION 2  The Planning Process               .                                     .         10

Steps in Planning a Unit .           .                                   .           .           .           .                       11

The Planning Example — Basketball Year 9                  .                                   .           .           14

SECTION 3  Topic Plans .         .         .         .         .                                     16

Gymnastics       .           .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           17

Athletics           .           .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           18

Health and Personal Development         .           .           .           .                                   .           19

Aquatics           .           .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           20

Individual Sports           .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           21

SECTION 4  Planning Elements .         .         .         .                                     22

Values of PDHPE         .           .           .           .                                   .           .           .           23

Issues   .           .           .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           26

Strategies for Teaching Valuing .           .           .                                   .           .                       28

Assessment      .           .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           34

SECTION 5  Appendices .         .         .         ..                                    .         36

Learning Areas in PDHPE        .           .           .           .           .                                   .           37

Competition Guidelines .           .           .           .           .                                               .           39

Duty of Care    .           .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           41


A  Framework


In the Adventist secondary school context, a "framework" is a statement of values and principles that guide curriculum development.  These principles are derived from Adventist educational philosophy which states important ideas about what Seventh-day Adventists consider to be real, true and good. 


A framework is also a practical document intended to help teachers sequence and integrate the various elements of the planning process as they create a summary of a unit or topic.  The framework is not a syllabus.


The framework is not designed to do the job of a textbook.  Although it contains lists of outcomes, values, issues and teaching ideas, the main emphasis is on relating values and faith to teaching topics and units.


Objectives of the Framework


1.    One objective of the framework is to show how valuing, thinking and other learning skills can be taught form a Christian viewpoint.  The Adventist philosophy PDHPE influences this process.

2.    A second objective is to provide some examples of how this can be done.  The framework is therefore organised as a resource bank of ideas for subject planning.  It provides ideas, issues, values and value teaching activities of PDHPE, so it is intended to be a useful planning guide rather than an exhaustive list of "musts."


The framework has three target audiences:


1.         All PDHPE teachers in Adventist secondary schools. 

2.         Principals and administrators in the Adventist educational system.

3.         Government authorities who want to see that there is a distinctive Adventist curriculum emphasis. 



The framework is comprised of five sections — philosophy, the planning process, sample unit plans, planning elements, and appendices.  The nature and purposes of each section are set out below.


It is suggested that you read this page describing these five sections now before attempting to use the document for the first time.

SECTION 1 — Philosophy

Section 1 is the philosophical section.  This section contains a philosophy of PDHPE, a rationale for teaching PDHPE, and a set of outcomes which have a valuing and Christian bias.


This section is meant to help teachers refresh their memories of the Christian perspective they should teach from.  They may consult this section when looking at longer-term curriculum planning, and when thinking about unit objectives.  They may also consider adapting it or using it as is to form part of their program of work.

SECTION 2 — The Planning Process

Section 2 is the "how to" section of the framework.  It explains a process teachers can follow when planning a topic or unit of work while thinking from a Christian perspective.  It is followed by a sample summary compiled by working through the steps.  Because it suggests an actual process for integrating ideas, values and learning processes, this section is the heart of the document.

SECTION 3 — Sample Topic Plans

Section 3 shows practical examples of how to use the framework in planning topics.  It is meant to show how Section 2 can be used to produce a variety of possible approaches to teaching valuing, thinking and other learning. 

SECTION 4 — Planning Elements

Section 4 contains lists of values, issues and teaching assessment strategies that teachers may consult when working their way through Section 2 of the framework.  It is a kind of mini dictionary of ideas to resource the steps followed in Section 2.

SECTION 5 — Appendices

Section 5 contains ideas for teaching which lie outside the domain of values and faith, but which could be useful as reminders of good teaching and learning practice.







Philosophy SECTION



A Philosophy of PDHPE                   .         .         .                  .         7

Rationale    .         .         .         .         .         .         .                   .         8

Values-Oriented Objectives     .         .         .                             .         9



The philosophy of this physical education framework is an extension of the philosophy of Adventist education which is based on a world view derived from the Christian faith.  This view begins with a belief in an eternal, loving and personal God who has always existed, who is all-powerful, and who is the source of all life, truth, beauty and Christian values.


Because it affirms the above Biblical view of God, the framework focuses on the concept of restoration.  Man was originally created in God's image, but this image has been marred by sin.  Physical education in Adventist schools therefore focuses on the restoration of God's image in mankind through emphasizing a group of health-related concepts.


We achieve good health by pursuing a balanced lifestyle, one which requires us to harmoniously develop all of our faculties - physical, social, spiritual and academic.  Through harmonious development of these faculties, we acquire a perception of well-being which helps us sense our personal value to God and the world.  Physical health therefore undergirds all that we attempt in life.  Consequently through an alert and balanced perspective we are better equipped to realize our life potential in a Christian context.


Our bodies are the temple of God where the Holy Spirit dwells, so they are places where God can readily re-establish His image.  As we build health and its attendant positive attitudes, this process influences both our quality of life and world view, and God's image becomes strengthened in us.


By viewing ourselves as God's dwelling places, we recognize that God's gift of health entails obligations.  Adventist lifestyle conveys a value-laden perspective of how life should be lived.  It also affirms attitudes to issues relating to desirable recreation, the nature and competitiveness of sport, healthy eating habits, and aesthetic beauty of human movement.  Through a healthy lifestyle and the knowledge of health and fitness, we can become positive models who glorify God and make Him more real to others.



The philosophy of physical education in this framework implies that there are good reasons for the importance of the subject in the curriculum.  Some of these reasons are expanded in this rationale statement.


Physical education is an essential part of wholistic education because fitness, stamina and general good health are necessary prerequisites for successful learning.  Our physical education skills help us cope with life, and extract the most from the variety of our experiences.


Physical activity helps many students develop self-esteem.  Sporting and other recreational activities also help students to experience new challenges, and to develop success, confidence and enjoyment in participating.  They sometimes experience little opportunity for such success elsewhere in school life.


The recreation component of physical education provides a popular context for adolescents to learn and enjoy social interaction and relaxation.  In games, sport and outdoor activities they relate to teachers and peers in a more relaxed manner, and they learn how to cooperate socially.  They also learn how to gain release from stress, and how to relax later in life.


Games and teamwork provide a venue for teaching a range of positive attitudes such as good sportsmanship and the benefit of endurance.  Attitude formation happens naturally and constantly during games and other physical activities.


Much physical recreation permits students to appreciate the aesthetic quality of movement, and to express themselves creatively in ways that are unique to physical activity.


Many skills, such as those relating to balance, coordination, and safety, are required in life and can be developed in physical education.


Outdoor education activities have the potential to help teachers make God more real to students.  Teachers demonstrate God's positive attributes as they gain rapport with students, interact with them, and show them evidence of God's creatorship in the outdoors.


Overall, physical education draws together a wide range of skills and values considered to be  important in life, and more specifically, it fulfils the intentions of Adventist education.

Values-Oriented Objectives


The objectives listed here focus on the more spiritual, social and affective aspects of PDHPE.  They are not meant to replace objectives and outcomes of state syllabi.


The PDHPE curriculum will provide students with opportunities to develop:


1.      A balanced Christian perspective of PDHPE, which recognizes the importance of health and exercise to total well-being.


2.      Knowledge of how to maintain their bodies in peak physical condition, so that they are more receptive to the development of personal spirituality.


3.      Appropriate Christian responses to issues such as the role of sport in society, the influence of the media in sport, and related moral concerns.


4.      The ability to evaluate the concepts, issues and performance standards of PDHPE in reference to Christian principles.


5.      The ability to establish realistic personal objectives in physical fitness and motor skill development.


6.      Understanding of the purposes for, and value of, physical activity in life.


7.      A working knowledge of how to prevent and treat injuries.


8.      Awareness of the need for a balanced lifestyle.


9.      The process of effective ethical decision making as a platform for becoming good citizens.


10.  Appropriate attitudes to personal stress, competition and challenge.


11.  Sensitivity to others’ needs through recognizing and accepting the worth of individual differences in people.


12.  The ability to participate effectively and responsibly in group interaction and decision-making.


13.  The ability to relate well to others in games, sport and teamwork.  This ability includes the qualities of loyalty, honesty, commitment and fair play.


14.  Empathy for others as a basis for making informed moral choices.







Steps in Planning a Unit        .         .         .         .                  .         11

Example of Using the Steps

The Planning Example — Basketball Year 9                        14

Steps in Planning a Unit



1     Consult the syllabus, including the scope and sequence chart of your program and yearly planner for the school.


•      Ask questions such as:  What do I cover?  What important values and issues could be included?  What is the detail?  Where does this fit? 

•      List ideas (areas of study) of what you want  to teach.  Put  these in order.

•      Where do I get the information?


2     List the most important outcomes (ideas, skills, values, knowledge etc).


3     Look for resources to support the strategies.  Gather information about the topic.  Consult text books for ideas.  Sort the information by referring to your program, framework, syllabus or yearly planner.  Check on your equipment, and purchase or book any equipment needed.


4     Devise interesting teaching strategies/activities to assist learning.


5     Develop a unit outline.  See the following two pages for an example of this outline.


6     Make up a folio of teaching notes.  This may include OHP’s, activity sheets, group activities, modified games, articles and assessment tasks


7     Devise assessment tasks.  Try to use objective criteria for grading in practical aspects of teaching.


8     Evaluate how successful your lessons are during and after the teaching.


9     Throughout the whole process, remember the importance of teaching values and the valuing process.


Remember that the process is not a rigid step-by-step sequence.  There is much coming and going between the points.

Example of Using the Steps


1       Consult the syllabus to see where “basketball” unit fits in.


2       See where “basketball” fits into the yearly planner (related to interschool sports & carnivals).


         •     It is included in the area of Team Sports.

         •     Cover the basic skills:           

               -        dribbling

               -        shooting

               -        passing and catching

               -        lay-ups

               -        offense/defense


3       Define the outcomes.  Examples are:        shooting using the correct technique,

         controlled dribbling, accurate passing (chest, bounce, over-head).


4       Look for resources.  They may include:


         •     Texts  ‘Sport Fun’, ‘Eduguide - Basketball Module’ (P.O. Box 2340, North Ringwood, VIC 3134), The PE Teacher’s Handbook (Garry Eadon & Simon Woinarski: Published by CollinsDove)

         •     Videos

         •     Guest Coach/Player

         •     Internet


5       Start to think of some possible teaching strategies:




         •     Peer teaching

         •     Relay races

         •     Tabloid circuits

         •     Knockout game


6       Develop a unit outline.  Ensure you cover all the basic skills as listed above (number 1).     This may take various forms such as the one on the following pages.


7       Make up a folio of teaching notes for this ‘Basketball’ unit.  This may include:       OHP’s, activity sheets, group activities, modified games, articles and assessment tasks.


8       Devise or modify objective assessment tasks.


         Example:  Shooting Test:


         Description:       Shooting for accuracy.  Standing on the free throw line shoot ten consecutive balls to score. 


         Scoring:  10 shots           =          100%

                        9 shots             =          90%

                        8 shots             =          85%

                        7 shots              =          75%

                        6 shots             =          70%

                        5 shots             =          65%

                        4 shots             =          60%

                        3 shots             =          50%

                        2 shots             =          40%

                        1 shot               =          30%


9       Evaluate how successful your lessons are during and after the unit.  Evaluation may come from assessment tasks, personal reflection.


Duration:  13 40 minute periods






























•   To be able to demonstrate the effective skills of chest bounce, overhead, one handed passing




•   To be able to demonstrate effective control of a ball while dribbling utilising both preferred and non-preferred hand








To be able to demonstrate effective styles of shooting

-   set shot

-   jump shot


• Passing drills

• Values of patience and teamwork





• Review passing

• Dribbling

• Motor skill competence

• Value of confidence by success

• Issue of the use of the modified game rather than game to get participation





• Shooting

• Ssafety issue with warm up sessions

• Cooperation with others

•   Warm up, stretching

•   Drills

-   Captain Ball, Star Drill, Pivot and Pass, Square Drill

•   Modified Game

-   Basketball - no dribbling, passing only


•   Warm up and stretching

•   Drills

-   3 man weave (bounce and chest pass]

-   Dribbling - preferred hand

-   Dribbling non preferred hand

-   Dribbling alternate

    (Dribble length of court and back)

-   Team relays with a pass to complete (L+R)

•   Modified game

-   Shooting inside the key only


•   Warm up and stretching

•   Beat the ball (dribble and pass)

•   Discuss shooting technique (wrist, elbow, shoulder, all in line)

•   Shadow drill - “stop, lock, goose neck”

•   Modified game - shooting outside the key only

-   every team member must score

•   Use peer support to cheer individual effort

•   Basketballs

•   Cones

•   Colour ribbons and b’balls

•   Whistle



•   As above












•   As above

•  Participation







•    Participation












•    Participation




































•   To be able to demonstrate the effectively a lay-up shot










•   Develop an understanding of offensive and defensive skills

    (Zone, 1 to 1)




•   Develop the ability to perform the following skills

-   Dribbling, lay-up, rebound, shooting

•   Each student demonstrates his/her abilities by playing a game

• Lay-ups












• Zone defence

• Value of working with others

• Values of fair play and trusting others



• Assessment of student ability




• Game test

• Positive attitude to winning and losing

•   Warm up and stretching

•   Discuss importance of the finger roll, rather than a jump shot against the board

•   Skills

-   2 step approach only (divide into 2 teams, one to lay-up, one to rebound

-   L+R approaches              

•   Push out to 3 point line and utilise dribbling and lay-up at the key

•   Modified game scoring by lay-ups only

•   Warm up and stretching

•   Discuss importance of defensive positioning.  Utilise students to demonstrate positions on the court (eg 2 forwards, 2 guards, 1 centre)

•   Modified game - hold up play until defensive zone is set

•   Warm up and stretching

•   Lay-up test

•   10 consecutive lay-ups at each end of the court.  Students are timed


•   Warm up and stretching

•   Play a game

•   As above












•   As above







•   Stop watch

•   Basketballs

•   Recording sheet

•   Whistle


•   Basketballs

•   Recording sheet

•   Whistle

•    Participation












•    Participation







•    Objective performance of ability to dribble, lay-up and rebound

•    Performance of number of successful shots

•    Students are assessed on their individual skills, team skills and individual effort


Topic Plans



Gymnastics .        .         .         .         .         .         .         .         17

Athletics      .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         18

Health and Personal Development  .         .         .                  19

Aquatics     .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         20

Individual Sports          .         .         .         .         .         .         21




Topic Content









Teaching Strategy


Creative and explorative movement experiences based on the following:


•   Static Positions

•   Rotations

•   Swing

•   Spring

•   Partners

•   Groups

•   Artistic

•   Educational/Laban

•   Rhythmic/Sportive








•  Develop aesthetic    appreciation of    movement

•  Develop responsibility

•  Perform motor skills     with coordination,    rhythm, agility and    balance

•  Develop expressive        and communicative skills







•   Aesthetics in     movement

•   Balance

•   Balanced physical     development

•   Development of     cooperation skills

•   Form

•   Positive self-image

•   Responsibility







•    Appropriateness of creative movement

•    Safety — prevention of injury

•    Compulsory training at an early age for elite athletes

•    Fear of the unknown (eg rolls)







•   Modification to enhance learning

•   High level of safety in place to experience the activity

•   Body type will not exclude a student from gymnastics.  The challenge is to determine their strengths

•   Mastery of skills can build confidence

•   Opportunity of developing responsibility in students.  Examples are spotting and coaching






Topic Content









Teaching Strategy

• Track

  -   Sprints — 100, 200,   400 metres

  -   Middle Distance —      800, 1500 mettres

  -   Relays – (4 by 100)



•  Make students aware of value of individual differences

•  Develop self-esteem from participation in areas where they are self-reliant

•  Develop the value of self-motivation

•  Value the care of equipment

•  Understand the issues surrounding safety in dealing with equipment



•   Awareness of somatotypes

•   Confidence in handling equipment

•   Motivation for training

•   Perseverance

•   Awareness of safety

•   Self-control

•  Use of performance enhancing drugs

•  Approach to individual participation — performance versus getting places

•  Attitudes to winning and losing

•  Prevention of injury (explosive sports)

•  Building self-worth

•  Performance nutrition

•  Conflicts with religious beliefs (eg Sabbath keeping for SDA’s)


•  Emphasise the development of personal fitness.

•  Modify equipment to enhance lead up skills.  Examples are throw tennis ball, then turbo javelin or vortex javelin.

•  Encourage peer support of individual effort.

•  Use a variety of students to demonstrate skills, and to participate in areas where they have obvious strengths.  Awareness of somatotypes allows for athletes to be large and slow, yet be competent in throwing events.






Topic Content









Teaching Strategy

•   The body and body systems

•   Personal health

•   Fitness and training

•   Biomechanics

•   Safety

•   Skill acquisition

•   Nutrition

•   Relationships

•   Social issues

•   Sex and family life

•   Principles of movement

•   History of sport

•   Community and environmental health issues

•   Use of leisure time


•  A balanced Christian perspective of PDHPE, which recognizes the importance of health and exercise to total well-being

•  Know how to maintain the body in peak physical condition

•  Make appropriate Christian responses to issues in PDHPE

•  Evaluate the concepts, issues and performance standards of PDHPE

•  Establish realistic personal objectives in physical fitness and skill development.

•  Understand the purposes for, and value of, physical activity in life.

•  Know how to prevent and treat injuries.

•  Be aware of the need for a balanced lifestyle.

•   Cleanliness

•   Sensitivity to social issues

•   Sensitivity to social norms

•   Appreciation of the miraculous nature of the body

•   Commitment to maintaining good health

•  Competition

•  Playing contact sport

•  Equal opportunities in sport

•  Ethical issues in sport and leisure

•  The place of fitness in life

•  Personal safety

•  Nutrition in lifestyle - junk food

•  Use of drugs in sport

•  Myths in physical education

•  Good sportsmanship

•  Nature of and reasons for fitness

This is a large component of the course, and invites the use of numerous strategies.  Possibilities are as follows:


•    Debate

•    Case studies

•    Exploring consequences of lifestyle decisions - consequences chart

•    Hypotheticals to explore issues

•    Identifying and clarifying values

•    Examining how media stimulus influences values

•    Problem solving

•    Ranking of values priorities

•    Role plays

•    Demonstrations

•    Decision-making

•    Identifying possible actions

•    Teacher expectations


Topic Content





Teaching Strategies


•   Swimming

•   Diving

•   Canoeing

•   Personal survival

•   Life saving

•   Board riding


Physical Skill Emphasis

•   Swimming strokes

•   Kick

•   Floating

•   Propulsion

•   Treading water

•   Towing

•   Body positioning


Mental Skill Emphasis

•   Decision-making

•   Spacial awareness

•   Awareness of environmental factors such as current and tides

•   Water etiquette


Students should be able to:

•  Be confident in their own personal survival skills

•  Develop confidence in attempting water entries from varying heights

•  Develop balance and manoeuverability

•  Assist another person in the water if necessary

•  Be proficient in water rescue technique

•  Appreciate the potential of recreational water activities to enrich living




•   Awareness of survival skills

•   Aesthetic value of recreational water activities

•   Confidence in water as a medium to move in

•   Appreciation of water as a natural God given medium

•   Level of efficiency in swimming stroke production

•   Willingness to strive for mastery of skills

•   Therapeutic value of mastering water skills

•   Safety awareness

•   Value of proficency for the self-esteem of the atypical child




•  Duty of care in water use

•  Use of appropriate equipment in water sports

•  Certification of instructors for water skills

•  Personal responsibility to learn resuscitation and life saving techniques



•  Emphasise respect for the environment when teaching appropriate skills

•  Create a safe learning environment for teaching skills

•  Ensure students develop personal survival skills before participating in other water activities

•  Use postive affirmation to encourage skill development

•  Demonstrate the various techniques

•  Use videos to demonstrate skill proficiency

•  Invite guest instructors to teach skills




Topic Content









Teaching Strategies

Examples of Sports:

•   Badminton

•   Tennis

•   Squash

•   Archery

•   Bowling

•   Racquet Ball

•   Golf


Physical Skills

•   Hitting - serving, returning etc

•   Aiming, positioning

•   Delivery

•   Eye/head positioning


Mental Skills

•   Spacial awareness

•   Court and field positioning

•   Decision making


Students should be able to:

•  Initiate an active lifestyle

•  Develop personal confidence and self-esteem through playing

•  Develop appreciation of the virtues of various sports

•  Value personal fitness

•  Develop a positive attitude to the outcome of the game (win or lose)

•  Accept the referee’s decision graciously

•  Appreciate their opponents in games and sports



•   Acknowledging others' performance

•   Cooperation

•   Empathy

•   Enjoyment

•   Excellence

•   Fair play

•   Honesty

•   Motor skill competence

•   Participation

•   Valuing relaxation




•  Attitude to winning and losing

•  Safety for self and opponents

•  Cost outlayed versus benefits gained in sports and games

•  Availability of facilities

•  Media representation of sport

•  Balance between sports and other forms of recreation



•  Positively affirm student efforts in playing

•  Use modification of games to teach new topics and techniques

•  Develop relationships with students through:

   -   individual acceptance

   -   positive correction

   -   paying attention to detail

   -   noticing students’      strengths and weknesses

•  Show personal enthusiasm for games and sports

•  Demonstration of skills








Values of PDHPE          .         .         .         .         .         .         23

Issues          .         .         .         .         .         .                  .         26

Strategies for Teaching Valuing       .         .         .         .         28

Assessment  .         .         .         .         .         .                  .         34

Values of PDHPE


Listed below are a group of values which important to PDHPE teachers.  The list is a starting point for teachers.



•  Acceptance of responsibility for one’s own learning

•  Capacity for self motivation

•  Confidence in handling apparatus and equipment

•  Cooperation

•  Creativity

•  Efficiency

•  Enthusiasm in tasks

•  Excellence

•  Flexibility in thought

•  Independence of thought, self-confidence and self-respect

•  Perseverance

•  Responsibility for one’s own actions

•  Safety consciousness

•  Safety procedures

•  Self-criticism and willingness to be evaluated by others

•  Self-discipline


•  Awareness of survival skills

•  Aesthetic value

•  Confidence in and about the medium

•  God given medium.  Part of God’s world – natural environment

•  Level of efficiency in stroke production

•  Striving for mastery

•  Therapeutic value

•  Unique safety considerations

•  Value to an atypical child

Creative Movement:

•  Beauty, grace, form

•  Composition

•  Cooperation

•  Creativity

•  Expressiveness

•  Interpretation, transposition

•  Order

•  Originality

•  Rhythm

•  Space awareness, body orientation

•  Spontaneity

•  Timing

Daily Life – Outdoor Education:

•  Appreciation of God’s world

•  Accepting the value of challenge

•  Conservation of the environment

•  Exploration of self-limits

•  Faith

•  Initiative

•  Leadership

•  Positive group interaction

•  Self-awareness

•  Serving the community

•  Shared responsibility


•  A high level of motivation

•  Diligence and perseverance

•  Positive self-image

•  Self-respect


•  Appreciation of past performances in sport

•  Respect for the workings and capabilities of the human body


•  Acknowledging others' performance

•  Cooperation

•  Empathy

•  Enjoyment

•  Excellence

•  Fair play

•  Honesty

•  Motor skill competence

•  Participation

•  Valuing relaxation


•  Aesthetics in movement

•  General physical development

•  Beauty

•  Development of cooperation skills

•  Form

•  Grace

•  Positive self-image

Health Education:

•  Cleanliness

•  Clear definition

•  Sensitivity to social issues eg sex, community health

•  Sensitivity to social norms

Track & Field:

•  Awareness of somatotypes.

•  Confidence in handling equipment.

•  Motivation for training.

•  Perseverance.



Discussion of issues is a vehicle for considering many values.  Some of the life issues that affect the teaching of PDHPE are listed below.



•  aggression

•  appropriateness

•  interschool sports

•  intraschool sports

•  rewards

•  scoring

•  motivational tool

Creative Movement:

•  appropriateness

•  attitude development

•  limitations

•  music used

•  sex roles

Contact Sport:

•  brutality

•  definitions of contact

•  injury

Equal Opportunity:

•  activity choice

•  activity level

•  advertising in sport

•  media myths

•  meeting needs of all students

•  responses to advertising

•  special groups


•  excesses in sport, competition,

•  fitness etc

•  fitness development on Sabbath

•  honesty in participation

•  Sabbath activities


•  Definition and nature

•  For what?

•  Why a certain level?

Myths in Physical Education:

•  factors preventing participation

•  media myths

•  nutrition

•  ideas of remedies

•  weight control


•  double standards

•  junk food

•  performance

Place of Theory:

•  role of sport science


•  degree of supervision

•  expertise of supervision

•  prevention of injury

•  readiness of students

•  use of equipment


•  attitudes to winning and losing

•  building self-worth

Teacher Model:

•  fitness

•  partiality

•  participation

•  professionalism

•  role model

The Place of Sport:

•  cultural considerations

•  leisure activities

•  parental influence

•  reasons for sport

•  spectators

•  value of sport

The Use of Skill in Games:

Use of Drugs:

•  Performance

•  Use of caffeine etc.


Strategies for Teaching Valuing


Below is a list of some suggestions for teaching values.  There are many other possibilities..

Application of Values

This tactic involves putting values into action.  An example would be deciding how to take positive action against racism.  Another example is showing teacher attitude in choosing teams for games.  Students can be taught that it is not important to weigh up who they are with on a team.  The way we choose teams, and the way we make comments about them influence student attitudes to playing games throughout life.


We can create opportunities for students to apply values to their own lives.  Examples of these opportunities are:


•      How does this incident relate to your values or life?

•      What do you personally get out of this portrait of a relationship between a teenager and a parent?

•      What are you going to do in response to the idea expressed in this fitness case study?


Cartoons can convey values.  For example students could identify and collect cartoons depicting issues in sports commercials, drug cheats, and scenes which identify a range of values which impinge on PDHPE.


By debating issues such as meat eating versus non meat eating, avoidance of premarital sex, the use of drugs in sport, and eating or not eating iron supplemetns in our diet, we can draw out a range of values.


We are constantly demonstrating values in the classroom.  For example, we may demonstrate the value of fitness by running ourselves, or by playing games with students.

Case Studies

Case studies examine values in operation.  Such studies could examine how poor health or good health affects a person or family’s quality of life, or how a particular sport helps determine a person’ s fitness.

Clarify Values

Help students clarify the value positions shown in their own and others' responses to questions.  Clarifying questions could include:


•      What values did you have in mind when you chose to pursue a Duke of Edinburugh Award?

•      Why did you express yourself to the referee like this?

•      What do you mean by your comment about the value of this game?  Explain yourself.

•      Why do you hold that position about this issue relating to sex?

Consequences Chart

A consequence chart is a way of recording the consequences of decisions and actions based on the values individuals and groups hold.


Example:        The class may be studying the impact of living safely. 



Short-term Consequences

Long-term Consequences

1  Drinking while driving



2  Bending the knees while lifting



3  Precautions of using electrical





Students complete the table and discuss the consequences of these actions.


Plan and develop situations where students can make positive decisions without threat from peers or teachers.  For example students are able to develop decision-making when thy can:


•      Referee in games

•      Be a team captain

•      Be a house captain

•      Be a leader in outdoor education activities


In theses situations students need to analyse alternatives and their consequences, gathering information about the decisions in the process.  A decision or choice which relies on value judgements can then be made.


Problem solving is another part of making decisions. Students can be taught how to solve problems in group situations.


Teachers may also help students make informed decisions about life.  This process is constant in PDHPE courses.  One tactic involves the type of values analysis which examines the consequences of choosing alternate courses of action in fitness training, choice of diet etc.  These decisions are then implemented with certain outcomes, and they result in goal achievement and the improvement or deterioration of well-being.  Students need to be aware of the steps in decision-making.  The following questions illustrate this tactic:


•      If you try to improve your diet in this way, what might be short- and long-term consequences (both positive and negative) for you, for other family members?

•      What evidence is there from the past, from Scripture or from other sources that the sorts of consequences listed above would happen?

•      Should we therefore attempt to arrange a diet like this?  Why?  What criteria are you using?


Making health decisions is related to personal spirituality.  It can be helpful to work backwards from principles of psychology to make links with Scripture references. 

Discuss Issues

Discuss value-laden life issues which arise anytime during classwork, whether discussion is teacher-initiated or student-initiated, formal or informal, and which impact on students.  Examples of such issues are found in this framework.


We teach values by insisting that we have high expectations of students.  These expectations can involve such issues as deportment, behaviour, language, effort expended, and general attitude.


It is essential to give a talk at the beginning of the year to emphasise your expectations.  There is a need to spell out your attitude to issues such as the appraoch to selecting teams in a way that makes all students feel wanted and included.


One practical approach to giving teeth to a teacher’s expectations is to explain a scheme like the following.  “Each student is starting the year with one hundred percent of an ‘A’ as a grade.  What happens after that is up to students”.


We often have a duty to explain why we hold value positions, or why values are important to students.  For example, we could explain the value of a vegetarian diet, not taking drugs in sport, resisting peer pressure, and avoidance of drinks which include caffeine.

Field Experience

Field experiences such as an excursion to gymnastics events, interschool competitions and fitness testing venues can highlight values such as persererance in training , responsibility for our health, or cooperation.


We may pose hypothetical problems for students to solve.  For example, we could create a scenario in which we ask "what would happen if there were no rules in a game, or if machines did all the work for us?

Identifying Possible Action

This strategy involves identifying responses to a particular values position and is the forerunner to taking action.


Example:        Major health concerns


Values Position

Possible Responses

Examples include:      

Response Chosen

ie taking action


•  Skin cancer must be reduced beacause it is life threatening


•    Write letters to school boards suggesting actions to be taken

•    Write letters to newspapers suggesting community responsibilities

•    Interview students in another school to increase their awareness of the risks of skin cancer


Identifying Values

We should take opportunities to identify values in many topics we cover.  For example, when talking about careers we might identify values that we could pursue in any work.  Examples are a love of what we are doing, integrity, personal development, and a search for what is rewarding in the task itself.


We should encourage students to constantly examine and identify the values expressed and implied in all aspects of PDHPE.  Sample questions are:


•      What is the message and value expressed in this game scenario?

•      What values are shown in my organization of this award-giving?

•      How does this reaction to competition reflect the values of the Adventist population in school?

•      What values are neglected in this choice of diet?

Leadership and Responsibility

Provide opportunities for students to develop leadership and responsibility.  Whether good or poor academically or physically, all students need to develop leadership and responsibility.  It is important that all students have oportunity to succeed in leading groups.  For example:


•      Appoint a wide spread of students to lead teams or groups.

•      Where possible, use students as coaches for teams or individudals, being constantly            mindful of the need to observe duty of care when students assist others.

•      Delegate responsibility when engaging in outdoor activities.

•      Appoint monitors for issuing equipment.

Likert Scale

This consists of a series of opinion statements designed to provide some idea of how intense student feelings are either for or against a given topic or issue.  Students strongly agree (SA), agree (A), are undecided (U), disagree (D), or strongly disagree (SD).








Contact sports should not be played in SDA schools






There is now too much technology in the game of cricket






There should be consistent drug testing for all kinds of sport






There is too much competitive sport in this school






Make Value Judgments

Help students make value judgments about activities and choices which relate to lifestyle.  We may continually assist students to both identify and form criteria for judging the worth of these activities and choices. 


PDHPE addresses many components of lifestyle such as safe living, lifestyle diseases, and attitudes to sex and the use of drugs and alcohol.  Sample questions may include:


•      Is this decision about drug use worthwhile?  On what basis do you make your judgment?

•      What are the criteria for judging what is good or bad in this approach to eating?

•      What do you think of the merit of this decision about use of leisure time?  What is the social issue here?  What is the Bible standard on this issue?  Why does the Bible take this view?

Media Stimulus

We can use media reports such as news items, and TV programs to raise issues and weigh them up, highlighting values involved.  For example we may examine how the media promotes attitudes to diet.  More specifically, we could look at marketing startegies, advertisements, and cartoons which feature sugery breakfast cereals.


The teacher constantly models values such as enthusiasm and care in procedures, and attitudes such as the conviction that all people are equal before God, and that we should treat others as such.


The teacher models values in many other ways as well.  Following are some suggestions about being an effective Christian role model.


•      Realize that your actions and reactions in organizing and participating in activities say more about your values than what you verbalize.

•      Enthusiasm is infectious and needs to be part of your manner.

•      Convey a high level of professionalism.

•      Display a sympathetic attitude to your students.

•      Be firm but caring in class management.

•      Discover and build on each student's abilities.

Problem Solving

We can help students weigh up values by asking them what to do next in problem situations.  An example of this approach is to present a case study of how bad diet is causing a family to suffer worsening health.  Then require groups of students to solve the problem by suggesting ways to break the cylce of poor eating which is causing the situation.


Projects on social issues such as drugs in sport can include a valuing component.

Raising Issues

An issue is a point or idea in question or dispute.  Issues involve competing values and their resolutions reflect world views.  We may for example raise issues such as the value of pursuing different kinds of exercise to have students explore the tensions between desirable but opposing values.


Ranking requires the listing of values statements that students are asked to rank in order of importance or commitment, according to their own or an adopted values position.  An example is to list in order of priority four values concerned with the maintenance of good health.

Role Plays

When students act out roles, they are forced to think about the values the role represents.  For example, we could have a student act out the role of a teenager having difficulty resisting peer pressure to take some drug.


Simulations force students to cast themselves in life-like problem situations.  For example, students can be asked to simulate what may happen when a teenager and his or her parents do not possess sufficient skills of conflict resolution.

Visiting Speakers

Visiting speakers present value positions on many topics.  For example, a sports personality from the local area can speak about his or her experience of what it takes to succeed in in sport.




Ways to Assess


1.         A student profile offers a good way of monitoring a student’s progress over time.  If possibe use a computer data base to build profiles.  Various aspects of PDHPE can be monitored and evaluated in a profile, with provision for periodic feedback.  Such aspects may include use of uniform, participation in games, sense of strategy in sport etc.  These need not be percentage-based, and need not compare students.


2.         Checklists of skill development provide an ongoing way of rating an individual’s skill level.  Self-assessment, or pair assessment in the form of a contract may be used.


3.         When students are asked to officiate or lead out in an area of interest or expertise, they learn evaluative skills, and can be subjectively assessed.


4.         Particular areas of the program such as Health Education and Foundations of Physical Education lend themselves more to traditional testing methods.


5.         Whenever possible objective testing methods should be used.  However there are components of this subject where subjective assessment is inevitable.

Other Kinds of Assessment:


1     Aquatics:

•    The swimming area has its own set of evaluation standards (RLSSA and SLSSA           for        example publish assessment guidelines).  Other national bodies have their own set of            criteria for evaluation.


2     Outdoor Education and Fitness:

•    A diary or log can be maintained and recorded observations presented and        assessed.  NOATAC has a set of outdoor education assessment guidelines.

•    Fitness tests are available. Australian Schools Fitness Tests is one example.


3     Creative Movement & Gymnastics:

•    Participants may present a routine, floor plan or apparatus configuration and be assessed according to clear criteria.


4     Track & Field:

•    In track and field there are inbuilt evaluative mechanisms such as the Five Star Award, and the ANZ Award.


5     Sports — Team, Dual and Individual:

•    Skills can be tested with checklists which should include understanding of game strategies and knowledge of rules.


The Overall Recording of Assessment

It is necessary to devise a variety of assessment tasks to provide a balanced perspective of student development in PDHPE.  Areas of assessment may be built into a percentage total like the following:



Percentage Weighting



Areas of Assessment



-        uniform

-        attitude

-        punctuality



Team Involvement



Skills Tests

-        objective skills tests and

-        subjective game results



Content Assessment

-        assignments and tests




This is only a guide which can be modified to suit your school situation.  This profile will allow student progress to be clearly seen and encouraged.









Learning Areas in PDHPE     .         .         .         .         .         37

Competition Guidelines          .         .                  .         .         39

Duty of Care         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         41

Learning Areas in PDHPE


This section of the framework provides a brief listing of subject content in seven key learning areas of PDHPE.  These seven areas appear in various state syllabi.







•  Water Safety

•  Diving

•  Survival Skills

•  Synchronized Swimming

•  Swimming Strokes

•  Water Sports and Games

•  Lifesaving and Resuscitation

•  Higher Awards for Life Saving








Activities related to:


•  Fitness  eg

•  Survival eg

-  Development

-  “Duke of Edinburgh”

-  Assessment

-  “Wilderness Lifestyle”

•  Circuit Training

-  Adventist Gold and Silver Awards

•  Outdoor Education eg

•  Physical Recreation  eg

-  Camping

-  Archery

-  Orienteering


-  Bushwalking


-  Canoeing


-  Cycling







Experiences of movement which involve:

Options could be provided in:

•  Individual experiences in the quality of movement  eg

•  Movement to music relating to:

    -  Eurhythmics

-  Rhythm

-  Educational Concepts - Laban

-  Space

-  Rhythmic Sportive Gymnastics

-  Time

-  Sports Acrobatics

-  Effort

-  Synchronized Swimming

-  Body Awareness

-  Traditional Cultural Movement


-  Aerobics


-  Mime






To include:

•  Individual and dual games

•  Team games

The options are provided for in the freedom of chocie of individual, dual and team games

(Selected from major and minor games of national, local and ethnic interests).









Creative and explorative movement experiences based on the following:


•  Static Positions

•  Artistic

•  Rotations

•  Rhythmic / Sportive

•  Swing


•  Spring


•  Partners


•  Groups










•  Running

•  Hurdling

•  Jumping

•  Walking

•  Throwing

•  Five Star Award


•  Pentathlon


•  Intraschool, Interschool and Other


•  Carnivals


•  Triathlon









•  Building Self-esteem


•  Community health issues


•  Consumer health


•  Disease and disability


•  Elements of Fitness and their Importance


•  Environmental health issues


•  Exercise and fitness


•  First Aid


•  Functions of the Major Body Systems


•  History of Sport


•  Major Body Systems


•  Major Mechanical Principles of Movement


•  Mental and Emotional Health


•  Nutrition and Fitness


•  Public health agencies


•  Relationships


•  Safe loving, sexual abuse


•  Safe movement practices


•  Sex and Family Life


•  Use and abuse of drugs


•  Work and leisure time


Competition Guidelines


Listed below are some basic competition guidelines for teachers involved in organizing games and sporting events of various kinds.


1.    The benefits of healthy competition are to a large extent dependent on teacher leadership before the competition commences.  Teachers demonstrate attitudes to competition in the way they organize their teams and discuss tactics before and after interschool games.  The planning phase is critical because there teachers can guide attitudes to winning, losing, and relating to other teams.  They can also ensure that their students practise skills and performance, and that they behave in an orderly and sportsmanlike way.


2.    The framework committee endorses the organization of interschool sporting events between Adventist schools, and between Adventist schools and non-Adventist schools.  The aim of interschool competition is to encourage students to improve themselves, and to encourage social interaction, participation, cooperation, and the ability to accept results graciously.  It may also act as an opportunity for participation at higher levels of their chosen discipline.


3.    The principle of involvement And participation is vital to staging healthy competition.  Teachers should strive for the inclusion of as many students as possible, and they should utilise a variety of events.  They can also demonstrate charitable attitudes in the way they choose teams.  Here they can discourage unfavourable attitudes to players of less than average ability.


4.    Teachers should explain to students their reasons for organizing competition in particular ways, and they should identify the values which underpin these approaches.


5.    The issuing of rewards is an activity which demonstrates what teachers value.  We suggest that if certificates are given, then all should receive them irrespective of their place in the race or match.  Certificates need not indicate the place of the participant, even though place getters (first, second and third) can be recognized in some way.  Also rewards should be placed on personal performances, rather than on placings.


6.    Teachers should recognize that the organization and running of actual sporting events only comprise part of the competition issue.  For example, the reporting of results and presentation of awards also have large implications for influencing student attitudes.


7.    Cheerleading should not be organized with specified leaders, nor should it appear organized at all. However the positive support of peers should be actively encouraged.  We recommend that teachers discourage teacher- or student-initiated cheer squads.  This is because such cheering can foster undue rivalry and a sense of emulating the cheering associated with ‘big league’ games.


8.    The use of “houses” is seen as a valuable approach to intra-school competition.


9.    In all competition, it is important to encourage all participants to do their best.


10.  We believe that sporting competitions can generate good school spirit .  The key motivator for this spirit is participation - a value teachers should keep emphasizing.


11.  In organising ongoing competition, round robin tournaments provide greater participation of students. In these tournaments all individuals or teams play everybody else.  Organizers should avoid elimination tournaments which can breed exclusiveness.  Teams can be mixed up so that different groups — male, female, staff etc — can interact.

Duty of Care


It is the schools’ duty to ensure that no student is exposed to any unnecessary risk or injury.  Teachers of PDHPE are particularly sensitive to this duty.  Negligence can lead to legal problems.  Below are some guidelines for teachers.  The full text of these guidelines can be found in the publication Guidelines for Avoiding Legal Problems.  A Quick Reference for Busy Teachers.  South Pacifc Education Department 1997.


Responsibility of Teachers

Teachers must provide effective supervision of students:


1.    during the teaching/learning process;

2.    during activities within the school grounds and buildings;

3.    when students are participating in school excursions, sporting fixtures and the like.


The actual test of whether a teacher is guilty of negligence in given circumstances can be stated as:


1.    Is there a legal duty of care involved?

2.    Has there been a breach of this duty?

3.    Did the breach lead to recompensable damage?

4.    Was there any contributing conduct on the part of the injured person?

5.    Was the teacher acting within the course of his or her employment?


Educational Excursions, Sports and other Visits

All excursions must have the approval of the Principal. All teachers participating must accept responsibility for the students. A signed permission note is required. This form in no way relieves or indemnifies the teachers of their responsibilities. Where it is considered necessary, the site of a proposed excursion should be inspected beforehand to identify potential problems or dangers and to determine the level of supervision necessary to avoid the risk of injury.


Accidents to Pupils

Procedures outlined by Risk Management Service are to be strictly adhered to. These are designed, apart from the need to aid the injured, to safeguard the teacher from possible consequences of any legal action which might be initiated by the parents:


1.       Teachers should give first aid as far as possible.  Do not attempt to move a child. If she/he is unable to get up unaided, leave the injured where she/he is and bring the doctor etc. to the injured.

2.       Parents/guardians should be notified by note or telephone as soon as possible.  A message conveyed by oral means must be confirmed by a note indicating that the parents were so informed.

4.         The injured child should be kept under reasonable observation.  In most cases the child should be allowed home with the guardian or parent.


4.    In serious cases where medial attention is obviously needed and the parents are not available, or the person nominated by the parent (this is found on the pupil information card), the teacher should send for the doctor, or take the child to a doctor and inform the parents as soon as possible of the action taken.  Where a parent is available, the RESPONSIBILITY must rest with him/her.



Suggestions for Teacher Guidance


If these are carefully heeded many unpleasant situations, where suspicion might be attached to innocent behaviour, will be avoided.


1.    Never be left alone with a child of either sex.

2.    Never detain a single child.

3.    Wherever possible avoid at all times conveying one pupil in your car - unless accompanied by another teacher of the opposite gender to yourself.

4.    In rendering first aid to pupils, wherever possible take care to see that another member of   staff or a senior pupil is present. It is preferable for a female teacher to attend a female student.

5.    Inspections of toilets and isolated sections of the school should be carried out at times when you are sure no pupils are present.

6.    Make every effort not to be alone with a child, or even two children, in the school building before or after school.  A habit can grow out of having students helping you.

7.    If you have to discuss a personal problem with a child, do so in the playground where others can see what is happening.

8.    Never touch a child of either sex apart from inevitable situations such as P.E. lessons, first aid or if instructed/requested by an authorised person.

9.    In dealing with parents and children, a teacher should be polite, firm, always under control.  Never allow a display of temperament in front of either the parents or children.

Using Private Vehicles to Transport Students


Teachers do so at their own risk.  Education policy is that, whenever possible, the school bus or hired transport should be used to transport students, and not teachersν private vehicles.


If teachers intend to transport students in their own vehicles, it is important that written parental permission be sought prior to the event and the vehicle be insured to the level required by Risk Management Service.