A Curriculum Framework for Seventh-day Adventist Secondary Schools




The South Pacific Division Curriculum Unit has enlisted the help of a number of teachers in preparing this document. We would like to thank all who have contributed time, ideas, materials and support in many tangible and intangible ways.


In particular, we would like to thank the members of the History Curriculum Groups who wrote and edited the document.  The group members were:


First Edition


Graeme Hawke                                    Nunawading Adventist High School

Sharon Kenealy                                    Pine Rivers Adventist High School

Dianne McMahon                                 Keilor Adventist High School

Tony Philips                                          Carmel Adventist College

Ronald Pieterse                                    Auckland Adventist High School

Arnold Reye                                         Trans-Tasman Union Conference Office

Lyndon Wright                                     Adelaide Adventist High School


Second Edition


Tony Harrison                                      Macquarie College

Tony Hay                                             Avondale Adventist High School

Pam Oliver                                           Prescott College

Bill Webster                                         Sydney Adventist College


It is our wish that teachers will use this document to improve their teaching and so better attain the key objectives of Seventh-day Adventist education.






Barry Hill

Director Secondary Curriculum Unit



South Pacific Division

Seventh-day Adventist Church

Department of Education

148 Fox Valley Road                                                               September 1999

WAHROONGA NSW 2076                                                   Second Edition





ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS        .         .         .         .         .                   .         2

TABLE OF CONTENTS          .         .         .         .         .                   .         3

WHAT IS A FRAMEWORK?           .         .         .         .                            4

USING THE FRAMEWORK             .         .         .         .                            5

SECTION 1  PHILOSOPHY             .         .         .         .                            6

Philosophy        .           .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           7

Rationale          .           .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           8

Ideas That Lie Behind History               .           .           .                                               .           9

Objectives        .           .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           10

SECTION 2  The Planning Process                   .                            .         11

Steps in Planning a Unit .           .           .           .           .                                               .           12

The Planning Example               .           .           .           .           .                                               13

SECTION 3  SAMPLE Topic PLANS                                                        15

European Settlement                                                                                                                 16

China - Contact and Defeat      .           .           .           .           .                                   .           17

Gallipoli            .           .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           18

SECTION 4  PLANNING ELEMENTS      .         .                   .         .         19

Values of History          .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           20

Historical Issues            .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           23

Strategies for Teaching Valuing .           .           .           .                                               .           25

Assessment      .           .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           31

SECTION 5  APPENDICES    .         .         .         .                            .         33

Historical Concepts      .           .           .           .           .           .                                   .           34

Suggestions For Developing a Christian Perspective      .           .                                               37

Quotations Associated With Some Concepts    .           .           .                                               41


A  Framework


In the Adventist secondary school context, a "framework" is a statement of values and principles that guide curriculum development.  These principles are derived from Adventist educational philosophy which states important ideas about what Seventh-day Adventists consider to be real, true and good. 

A framework is also a practical document intended to help teachers sequence and integrate the various elements of the planning process as they create a summary of a unit or topic. 

The framework is not a syllabus.

The framework is not designed to do the job of a textbook.  Although it contains lists of outcomes, values, issues and teaching ideas, the main emphasis is on relating values and faith to teaching topics and units.

Objectives of the Framework


1.    One objective of the framework is to show how valuing, thinking and other learning skills can be taught form a Christian viewpoint.  The Adventist philosophy  of history influences this process.

2.    A second objective is to provide some examples of how this can be done.  The framework is therefore organised as a resource bank of ideas for subject planning.  It provides ideas, issues, values and value teaching activities of history, so it is intended to be a useful planning guide rather than an exhaustive list of "musts."

The framework has three target audiences:-

1.    All history teachers in Adventist secondary schools. 

2.    Principals and administrators in the Adventist educational system.

3.    Government authorities who want to see that there is a distinctive Adventist curriculum emphasis. 



The framework is comprised of five sections — philosophy, the planning process, sample unit plans, planning elements, and appendices.  The nature and purposes of each section are set out below.


It is suggested that you read this page describing these five sections now before attempting to use the document for the first time.


Section 1 is the philosophical section.  This section contains a philosophy of history, a rationale for teaching history, and a set of outcomes which have a Christian bias.


This section is meant to remind teachers of the Christian perspective they should incorporate in their teaching.  They may consult this section when looking at longer-term curriculum planning, and when thinking about unit objectives.  This may also be adapted to form part of their program of work.

SECTION 2 The Planning Process

Section 2 is the "how to" section of the framework.  It explains a process teachers can follow when planning a topic or unit of work while thinking from a Christian perspective.  It is followed by a sample summary compiled by working through the steps.  Because it suggests an actual process for integrating ideas, values and learning processes, this section is the heart of the document.



Section 3 shows practical examples of how to use the framework in unit planning.  It is meant to show how Section 2 can be used to produce a variety of possible approaches to teaching valuing, thinking and other learning. 


Section 4 contains lists of ideas, values, issues and teaching strategies that teachers may consult when working their way through Section 2 of the framework.  It is a kind of mini directory of ideas to resource the steps followed in Section 2.


Section 5 contains ideas for teaching which lie outside the domain of values and faith, but which could be useful as reminders of good teaching and learning practice.









A Philosophy of History .         .         .         .                                       .         7

Rationale    .         .         .         .         .         .                             .         .         8

Ideas That Lie Behind History          .         .         .                            .         9

Values-Oriented Objectives     .         .         .                                       .         10




A Christian philosophy of history affirms that God has always existed.  His creation of this world marked the beginning of human history in time and space.  Furthermore, the biblical perspective strongly suggests that God is exercising a continuing role in the affairs of earth’s men and women, and in the universe. The study of history therefore includes a search for explanations concerning the origins, purpose and destiny of the universe and earth’s people as determined by God.


The above paragraph makes it clear that the Christian view of history is theologically oriented.  It is concerned with the entire sweep of human experience, and it places Jesus Christ in the centre of that experience. Sin is portrayed in Scripture as alienation between the Creator and His creatures and the search for selfhood outside the purposes of God.  An understanding of reality from a Christian perspective must take into account the effects of sin in human history.  Therefore as a record of human activity, history may be interpreted as a witness of distorted social conditions, corrupted exercise of power, and disruption in human affairs.


The Christian view of history sees humanity as being the crown of creation, so that human patterns of action and interaction can reveal God’s infinite glory in numerous ways.  The Holy Spirit, who works through many avenues, can influence the actions of humanity, although men and women man are often motivated by self-interest.  Consequently, they can do a good deal to change the course of events, either positively or negatively.


As the events of history are studied by the Christian historian, patterns of cause and effect may be traced.  These outcomes are not viewed simply as God’s providence, for they work in conjunction with many other historical forces interacting in complex ways.


In its account of the past, history reveals how the value priorities of men and women influence individual people’s lives, world events and the rise and fall of nations.  Making moral evaluations of these events will form part of the historians’ task as they examine the past, and these judgements will be made with reference to the authority of the Scriptures. 


Adventists teach history so that as active Christians, students of history will develop a broad world view which incorporates awareness of cosmic forces shaping life.  Earth’s history shows patterns of the interaction between God, Satan, and earth’s people.


Historical study leads us to examine the choices men and women have made, the motivations behind these choices, and their outworking.  As students understand these choices in the light of their world view, they should decide to participate actively and positively in shaping history.


Choices show how values are important in forming cultures and national identity.  It is therefore important that students study history as a vehicle for seeing how the positive aspects of good citizenship reveal these value priorities.


History has a unique and crucial role to play in a balanced education.  Good reasons for studying history as part of good education can be found for example in the NSW State Syllabus for Years 7—10.  Some of these reasons are as follows:


Consider these ideas.  Make sure they come through in your teaching.  Use them to help you ask questions about the meaning of history.

1.    We can only understand ourselves and our society by understanding our history.

2.    History involves a sense of time, and treats people and events in the context of their time.

3.    History is a continuous process.  While this process shows change, the rate of change is not necessarily constant.

4.    History shows us how that we must make careful decisions in life, knowing that we have to stick with them and defend them.  We are responsible for our decisions.

5.    We must follow a methodical process of inquiry to find out the truth about the past and the present.

6.    God exists and acts in time and space.

7.    History confirms that Jesus is a real person in earth’s story.  It also reveals the nature of man's relationship with Jesus.

8.    History shows the effects of the struggle between good and evil, and therefore the effects of both goodness and sin in the world.  Man takes part in the struggle, influencing history both positively and negatively. 

9.    God's providence is not necessarily event-specific, but is still confirmed in history.  There is a divine purpose in the sweep of time.

10.  Historical events usually have multiple causes and effects.

11.  History goes beyond politics, economics, social structure and culture.  It shows how moral and religious actions and judgments are also important. 

12.  False ideas about man and his origins have had a big influence on history.


The objectives listed here focus on the values and beliefs about history that would interest a Christian historian.  They are not meant to replace objectives and outcomes of state syllabi.


As a result of studying history students should develop:


1.    A Christian perspective of time, its specific periods and the individual’s position in time.

2.    Understanding of the unique social, cultural, religious, political and psychological elements of selected periods and how individuals influence and were influenced by these elements.

3.    Understanding of the influences of God and Satan on the patterns of change and continuity throughout time, as revealed by divine inspiration.

4.    Acceptance and support of the concept of a Christian world view of history.

5.    The value of seeing the importance of knowledge and developing this knowledge defend a personal viewpoint.

6.    An appreciation of a different cultures.

7.    A sense of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship

8.    A willingness to be involved in their contemporary world.


1.        An appreciation of the uniqueness and value of individual people in past events.

2.        A sympathetic understanding and sensitivity to the life circumstances, value positions and consequent actions of others, in both the past and the present.

3.        An appreciation of the worth and diversity of various cultures and lifestyles.

4.        An empathy with those who struggle for justice, seek respect for the individual, and those who triumph in service for others.

5.        An appreciation of the complexity of change and the need for personal adaptability to change.

6.        Interest and participation in community activities such as heritage groups, museums, theatre, exhibitions, and restoration projects.

7.        A willingness to preserve our heritage.

8.        A readiness to investigate the past critically, sensitively and objectively and to make balanced value judgments from all available data.

9.        A willingness to submit one's reflections and judgments to ongoing evaluation by others.

10.    A desire to minister to the needs of others.

11.    A lifelong enthusiasm for the study of history.









Steps in Planning a Unit        .         .         .         .                            .         12

The Planning Example .         .         .         .                                      .         13





1     Consult the syllabus, including the yearly planner for the school, if there is one.

·       Ask questions such as:  What do I cover?  What important values and issues could be included?  What is the detail?  Where does this fit? 

·       List ideas (areas of study) of what you want  to teach.  Put these in order.


2     Gather information about the topic.  Consult resources including senior teachers and text books for ideas.  Sort through the information by referring to the syllabus or school subject planner.  If you are new to the subject it may help to read and underline a good text, and summarise the underlining before moving though the text in class.  It can also help to photocopy good supplementary material from a source such as The Twentieth Century.

3     List the most important outcomes (ideas, skills, values, knowledge etc).

4     Devise interesting teaching activities to assist learning.

5     Look for resources to support the activities.  These may include videos, text books, magazines, CD and internet references, government support materials, AV kits, ideas and materials of other teachers.  Book any equipment needed.  Sometimes it may be helpful to visit another teacher in a nearby school to get ideas or resources.

6     Fill in a planning grid, breaking the information into lessons.

7     Create teaching notes for your own use, or refine the teaching notes you have been making. Previous teaching notes may include assignments, tests, photocopied material, worksheets etc.

8     Devise assessment tasks in consultation with the department head (in bigger schools), syllabus and any external exams.

9     Go back and evaluate during and after the teaching.

9.        Throughout the whole process, remember the importance of teaching values and the valuing process.


Remember that the process is not a rigid step by step sequence.  There can be fluid movement between any of the steps, and the task can be done in a number of different sequences.





1.    Consult the syllabus to see where European contact and colonisation fits in. 

·       Ask where the topic fits in the sequence of the syllabus, and at what year level or stage.

·       It is included in the mandatory syllabus for NSW.  The broader topic is Australia and its people to the middle of the Nineteenth Century.

·       Ask what is covered broadly.  Examples:  Initial European contact, British colonisation, early Aboriginal and non Aboriginal.  Ask what important values and issues could be included.  Examples are racial tolerance, justice, stewardship related to land use, freedom (for convicts, for democracy etc), and nationalism.  The topic can include issues such as racism, land ownership, the ethics of sending convicts, and the nature of the relationship between Aboriginal and non Aboriginal people, abuse of human rights, the shaping of our identity through this period, the legacy of this initial contact today.

·       It is a good idea to compile teaching notes as you go, along with a resource folder.

2.    To collect information, go to suitable texts and other resources which could include the examples below in Point 5.

3.    Define the outcomes.  Examples are:  plan historical research, list the reasons why the British settled in Australia, discuss the pros and cons of transportation, empathise with the Aboriginal perspective of land ownership, value the increasing democratisation of the government during colonial times, recognise some of the factors influencing peoples’ actions in the past, communicate a logical argument in oral and written forms.

4.    Start to think of some possible teaching strategies.


·       Use OHP’s to outline the reasons for settlement

·       Examine sources such as documents and stories from a CD ROM and fill in charts

·       Write a biographical study on a governor

·       Draw up a timeline of the major settlement events

·       Role play events such as the Rum Rebellion, the Castle Hill Rebellion, the first arrival, the Convicts going to select themselves a wife

·       Guest speaker such as a parent to talk about an Aboriginal issue

·       Review videos with answer sheets or discussion

·       Mapping exercise of the explorations

·       Visit a site such as Trial Bay Gaol or Elizabeth Farm or Old Government House at Parramatta, Hyde Park Barracks in the city, cottages in the rocks

·       Museum visits — Museum of Justice, Sydney Museum

5.    Look for resources.  They may include:  videos such as Frontier, the ABC video on 150 Years of War in Australia, Women of the Sun, the texts Understanding Australian History, Images in Australian History, AV kit Invasion and Resistance, the play Myall Creek Massacre, available role plays, document studies such as those on the squatters, sets of OHP’s on reasons for Australian settlement, CDROM on The First Fleet, NSW History Association Journal articles, site study such as Trial Bay Gaol, discussion of source documents such as The Invader which an Aboriginal account of how the 1770 and 1788 fleets came.

6.    Fill in the planning grid.  This may take various forms such as the one on the following page.

7.    Refine the teaching notes you have compiled so far on European contact.  Remember to match teaching notes with student notes and activities.  Order and structure notes, leave space to write changes etc.

8.    Devise assessment tasks.


·       Written test on treatment of Aborigines.

·       Assignments on the Rum Rebellion, or the squatters.

·       Video response sheet on Peach’s Gold or Golden Pennies

·       Debate the issue of whether the colony was an invasion or a settlement.

9.    Evaluate your teaching of European contact.  This evaluation may come from sources such as student feedback, marks from assessment tasks, personal reflection, and reassessment of student attitudes in the longer-term.






Sample Topic plans



European Settlement     .         .         .         .                   .         .         16

China — Contact and Defeat  .         .         .                            .         17

Gallipoli     .         .         .         .         .         .                   .         .         18


































Outline the nature of

occupation prior to the

European arrival






Identify the specific periods and places where contact occurred to 1850






Value and respect the

property of others

Appreciate how all cultures

are equal

Develop empathy for other



List and priorities the

main reasons for the change in the relationship between

Aboriginals and Europeans

Revision of previous topic on Aboriginal culture

Loss of food supply

Geography, number of people



Relationship to land


Displacement of Aboriginals

Colonisation of Australia

Phillip’s original instructions

Effects of Europeans on Sydney Aboriginals

Myall Creek 1770, 1788




19 counties

Batman and the Yarra area

The work and attitudes of

church missions

The Aboriginal point of view


Reasons for change eg

Disease, Treatment, Squatters

Loss of environment

Loss of life

Effect of laws on culture

Settlement expansion

Resource need of UK

Watch Video Destination








Hypothetical of Macintyre and the Aborigines

Contrast the attitudes of Bennelong

and Pemulway

Poster of a governor’s attempt to be fair

Take notes on Sydney settlement


Timeline of the period

Discussion on unlocking the land

Debate the rights of squatters

Case study of Myall Creek incident

Assume the role of an Aboriginal

 and write about an incident


Notes on reasons

Debate the notion of whether Aboriginals are treated fairly

Videos —

Destination Australia

Women of the Sun


Text — Checkerboard

Text — Understanding Australia


The Black War — book


Invasion and Resistance

AV Kit


Aspects of Australian

History — Book


Destruction of Aboriginal

Society  book by Rowley







Case study


Video response sheet


Topic test


Assignment:  Compare

and contrast Aboriginal

Levels between 1788 —













   List reasons why Britain

    wanted to trade with China


   Debate the morality of

    using opium as a

    commodity of exchange


   Explain China’s reasons

    for allowing limited

    contact with the West


   Examine the reactions of

    the Chinese to the

    introduction of RC and other Christian missions


   Describe the difficulties

    China found in trying to maintain its political

     stance in the face of

    external pressure


   Analyse the issue of the

    shameful ongoing

    conditions on the weak



  Draw a diagram of the three way trade

    triangle:  Britain, China and India


  Document study on China’s attitude

     to overseas trade


  Do a cartoon study on China’s

    attitude to overseas trade.  Make

    notes on unequal treatment


  AV on tradition and change


  Role play a bullying situation to

    show how national bullying worked


  View a video of a blue eyed/brown eyed experiment


  Discuss:  How did the Chinese generally react to the introduction
of Christianity backed by foreign powers eg Taiping/Boxer Rebellion


  Draw a timeline 1838—1911


  Do a biographical study of major personalities such as Ci Xi,
Sun Yatsen

    Text — World History


    Tape and slides — Tradition

    and Change


    Video — Blue Eyed
Jane Elliot SBS
30 Nov ‘97


    Text — Century of Change


    Book — East Meets West


    Video — Last Emperor

   Topic test




   Document study











   Interpret authority and

   See conflict as a value

   Evaluate the qualities of
following values:

-   cooperation

-   freedom

-   nationalism

-   tolerance

   Outline the main events

    of Gallipoli

   Give reasons for

    Australian involvement

   Describe the method of


   Explain why Gallipoli

    was seen as a defeat

   Draw a map of the peninsula

  Preparation for war



  Wrong area

  Battle and tactics

  Trench warfare

  Simpson and his donkey

  Retreat from the beach

  Reasons for Australian


  Allies of Australia

  Sense of pride in the


  Results of Gallipoli

-  brave and gallant actions

-  Anzac Day

-  Every community

    touched and has


  Battle of the Neck

  Battle of Lone Pine


  Debates (should Aust

    have gone?)

  Discuss Anzac Day

    traditions and


  Video (Gallipoli)

  Contrast Australian and

    UK viewpoints

  Posters such as those

    trying to get enlistment

  Field trip to army sites

  Simulation - dig a trench

    and simulate warfare

  Discuss why people went

  Notes on Gallipoli in WW1


  Gallipoli video


  Understanding Australian


  Aspects of Australian


  Images of Australia

    (for Simpson and


  World at War

    video series

  Causes of WW1 video

  All Quiet on the

    Western Front video


  Topic test

  Debate (Should

   Australia have gone)

  Assignment (Reasons

   for enlisting)

  Video review


• Compre-hension questions

  Source materials such

   as maps, newspapers etc)










Values of History  .         .         .         .         .                            .         20

Historical Issues   .         .         .         .         .                            .         23

Strategies for Teaching Valuing       .         .         .         .                   25

Assessment  .         .         .         .         .         .         .                            31



History shows how values influence what happens to people and nations.  The list of values in this section includes those values which are of particular interest to Christian historians.


Acceptance of Diversity:

Respect, understanding and acceptance of individuals with differing lifestyles and beliefs.

Adoption of Seventh-day Adventist World View:

A willingness to pursue a set of interrelated basic assumptions and values which together dispose SDA Christians to see the world in a particular way.  The SDA student makes sense of the world and develops a personal world view through understanding the concepts listed in this framework.

Awareness of Bias

Ability to perceive that one’s perspective is influenced by one’s world view.

Biblical Morality:

A world view which assesses the rightness or wrongness of human behaviour and conduct according to scriptural ethical principles.

Biblical Perspective:

A viewpoint emphasising the evidence of divine purposes and principles as found in the study of history.  A clear understanding of the course of human history is not possible without a knowledge of the origin, nature and destiny of man, biblical principles and prophecy.

Christian Stewardship:

The responsible management of God's gifts.


Appreciation of the rights, responsibilities and privileges of belonging to a society.

Commitment to Truth:

The willingness to seek truth which is an indisputable fact or principle which accurately conforms with reality.  Truth does not change, but because man's ability to comprehend it is limited, his perception of truth may change over time.


Working with others and sharing responsibilities for a common purpose or benefit.


Empathy involves emotional identification of one's self with the character and experiences of another person.

Environmental Sensitivity:

A consciousness of living in harmony with the natural surroundings which have been adversely affected by conditions such as urban growth, pollution and economic exploitation.


Determination of the limitations that should be placed on personal, civil and religious liberties as well as identification of consequences arising from these limitations.


The qualities of honesty, personal honour, credibility and adherence to moral principles even under stress.


Interaction among persons, groups and nations which rely on each other as they work to satisfy human needs and wants.


A sense of one’s origin, belonging and destiny.


The right to equal and impartial consideration under the law of God and the laws and customs of society.


A sense of direction in life.  It entails sensitivity to the spiritual, physical, mental and emotional needs of others through involvement as good citizens, concerned neighbours and Christian witnesses.


That trait or characteristic of a people which is exemplified by loyalty and devotion to, or advocacy of, their national interests or national unity and independence.


An attitude of mind which allows a person to evaluate and accept new ideas and incorporate them into his belief and value system.  It permits a person to explore and respect ideas which may be at variance with his own belief and value system.


A personal involvement in a variety of individual and cooperative community, civic, social and church activities which will enrich and expand community awareness.

Questioning Attitude

Interest in posing appropriate historical questions, inclination to inquire.


A demonstration of regard for the feelings of others and those in a position of authority in society.

The recognition of self-worth and the worth and dignity of others.


An understanding and appreciation of the rights, privileges and duties involved in the participation of individual or corporate actions.  The willingness to accept the consequences of actions taken.


Responsiveness to the thoughts and feelings of other people, and a commitment to the avoidance of doing or saying anything in a manner that would diminish another's feelings of self-worth.


The act of recognising, responding and ministering to the needs of others.


A willingness to respect, understand and accept the rights of people who hold wishes, views, beliefs and value systems that lead to diverse lifestyles from our own.



History is concerned with many issues.  These are ideas, policies, incidents, or procedures that can be viewed from different perspectives.  Ideas and events become issues because they revolve around peoples’ values.  An issue often draws out disagreement and causes tension between people because their different value priorities change their approach to resolving it.



·                convicts

·                Biblical perspective

·                Civil War (US)

·                blackbirding

·                trade

·                rights/wrongs



·                white man’s burden

·                world division

·                empires

·                spread of religion

·                indigenous people



·                unification

·                wars

·                revolution

·                Ghandi

·                Eureka

·                separatism



·                causes

·                resolution

·                wars

·                Trade Unions

·                Family dislocation

·                UN


Individual versus State

·                Apartheid

·                racism

·                totalitarianism

·                communism

·                home front

·                war

·                censorship


·                Religious

·                Political

·                Democracy

·                Economic

·                Social

·                Apartheid


Human Rights

·                League of Nations

·                Declaration of Rights

·                Civil Rights

·                religious freedom

·                role of children/adults

·                workers’ rights



·                sanctions

·                capital punishment

·                convicts

·                holocaust

·                Gulags

·                state terror


Economic Systems

·                communism

·                capitalism

·                socialism

·                feudalism

·                theocracy



·                Industrial Revolution

·                Agricultural Revolution

·                Factory System

·                mechanisation

·                automation

·                urbanisation

·                empire building

·                productivity



·                Hitler

·                Stalin

·                Caesar

·                Czarist system

·                absolutism



·                democracy

·                free trade

·                constitution

·                1800’s Revolution

·                divine right

·                parliament

·                voting

·                ancient Greeks

·                Sparta



·                posters, slogans

·                bias

·                control of art, culture

·                control of media — film, newspapers, books

·                cartoons


Civil Disobedience

·                revolutions

·                strikes

·                protests

·                marches

·                anti-social behaviour

·                sit-ins

·                petitions

Foreign Aid/Assistance

·                loans and Wall Street crash

·                Great Depression

·                Marshall Plan

·                Dawes Plan

·                PNG current example

·                World War 1 loans

·                reparations

·                Lend-Lease Plan


Cold War

·                       trust and mistrust between governments

·                propaganda

·                competition between ideologies

·                Government Responsibilities

·                tax

·                social benefits

·                income distribution



·                racism

·                White Australia

·                religion

·                contribution

·                multiculturalism


Pressure Groups

·                political parties

·                professional associations

·                trade unions -historical origins




This section of the framework outlines some possible teacher tactics for introducing and emphasising values.  These activities are useful for teaching other kinds of curriculum content as well.


We build analogies by showing similarities or correspondence between ideas, models or systems that are not normally associated with each other.  An example is to gain insights into government by analysing how families and family organisations function.  Examples of such organisations are churches and clubs.

Analysing Values

We analyse values by either reasoning about them or the valuing process in a structured or systematic way.  This may involve looking at the consequences of pursuing different alternatives.  These could perhaps form part of a dilemma.  For example, what is the justification for Stalin using force to modernise Russia in the 1930’s.  Compare with capitalism.  We could consider long range consequences such as success in WW2, becoming a super power, freedom of the individual versus the interests of the state.

Application of Values

This tactic involves putting values into action.  An example would be deciding how to take positive action against racism, or finding ways to cope with unemployment.

Building Support for a Position

For this tactic, we would show how to support a case either for or against a position.  For example, we could support a case for or against conscription in WW1, or argue for free trade versus protectionism, assimilation versus multiculturalism, free enterprise versus capitalism, democracy versus communism.


Cartoons can convey values.  For example students could collect a cartoon depicting the Nazi-Soviet Pact, identifying motives and advantages of both sides.


A checklist is a list of values, or value statements.  It can be use to identify and analyse an individual’s or group’s values position. 


Example:  Industrial Revolution

The example below indicates a number of contrasting attitudes towards technological change in the Industrial Revolution.  The student will complete the frequency column while studying stimulus material such as videos or newspaper articles.  A follow-up activity would be to analyse the frequency and distribution of ticks in order to recognise the value position of the stimulus material.


Technological Change

         Attitudes to Technological Change











  It is essential to economic growth









  It is essential to economic growth









  Improves living standards               









  Creates unemployment









  Undermines traditional lifestyles











By debating an issue such as Australia’s immigration policy, we can draw out a range of values.  Other topic examples are provided in the paragraph above on building a support for a position.


We are constantly demonstrating values in the classroom.  For example, we may demonstrate Australian voting systems by using the classroom and students to reconstruct the procedure.

Case Studies

Case studies examine values in operation.  Such a study could examine how trade unions developed, the struggle against apartheid, or the battle for civil rights in a number of countries.

Choosing Between Values

This strategy may be used to select either freely or from a list of alternatives.  In terms of values, this involves choosing value statements or terms which are appropriate to the individual.  This may be followed by ranking activities. 


Example:        Political Systems

Collect 10 value statements reflecting differing political systems, such as:


            (i)         The rights of the individual are less important than the rights of the

                        community as a whole

            (ii)        The freedom to chose is central to the democratic way of life.


Students choose those statements that best represent their values position.  A class discussion could follow whereby the statements are related to the values positions of various groups of people.


Students should be aware of the dangers of stereotyping different groups of people.  A nation, especially, is very likely to contain people who hold different values.  Dangers of stereotyping may be overcome by the students having access to appropriate information.

Consequences Chart

A consequence chart is a way of recording the consequences of decisions and actions based on the values individuals and groups hold.


Example:        Economic Development

The class may be studying the impact of developing a recently discovered coal seam.



      Short-term Consequences

       Long-term Consequences

 1   Development of the wool industry



 2   Discovery of gold



 3   Industrial Revolution



 4   Five Year Plans



 5   Modernising of Japan  




Students complete the table and discuss the consequences of these actions.

Discussion Cards

Discussion cards represent a strategy for controlled discussion.  It is appropriate for small group discussion in which each card defines a particular aspect of an issue.  It would be followed by whole class discussions of each group’s findings.


Example:        Communes in China


     Card 1

What were Mao’s ideas about Communism?

     Card 2

What is a commune?

     Card 3

What was the great leap forward?


     Card 4

How did Mao try and keep control of his revolution?



We often have a duty to explain why we hold value positions, or why values are important to students.  For example, we could explain the value of intellectual honesty in essay writing and the documentation of sourcing and referencing.

Field Experience

Field experiences such as an excursion to museums, heritage sites and theme parks can highlight values such as responsibility or cooperation.


We may pose hypothetical problems for students to solve.  For example, we could create a scenario in which we ask "what if Australia reintroduced capital punishment?  What would follow?"  Another scenario is to reconstruct what might happen if Australia did not give foreign aid.

Identifying Possible Action

This strategy involves identifying responses to a particular values position and is the forerunner to taking action.


Example:        Political Decision Making


Values Position

Possible Responses


Examples include:            

Response Chosen


ie taking action


·                 Sites within the CBD of historic importance should be preserved.          


·                 Write letters to city council and state government

·                 Support National Trust

·                 Vote for those politicians supporting preservation

·                 Join a direct action group and demonstrate on a site




Identifying Values

We should take opportunities to identify values in many topics we cover.  For example, when talking about propaganda or the nature of socialism and capitalism, we might identify integrity, truthfulness, or openness as values.

“I”  Statements

“I” statements invite students to become involved in the emotions and actions of history.  Students could choose a real person in political power and write a statement beginning "I urge you to...."

“I Urge” Telegrams   

Students choose a real person involved in history and write a telegram beginning with "I urge you to

“I Want” Advertisements

Each student is provided with a card on which to design a "Wanted" advertisement setting out the particular aspect of a situation they feel undesirable and would like to change.  After this the teacher collects the cards, shuffles them and invites each student to take one.  A group sharing session would follow.


Example:        Militarisation

Students could compose telegrams to world leaders expressing their attitudes towards a conflict in a particular part of the world, or regarding the spatial distribution of nuclear weapons.

Likert Scale

This consists of a series of opinion statements designed to provide some idea of how intense student feelings are either for or against a given topic or issue.  Students strongly agree (SA), are undecided (U), disagree (D), or strongly disagree (SD).








Voting should be compulsory       







Freedom of speech should never be limited






Religious rights should not be restricted






Everyone has a right to education to the end of secondary school







Media Stimulus

We can use media reports such as news items, and TV programs Four Corners and "Foreign Correspondent" to raise issues and weigh them up, highlighting values involved.  Christian responses to given issues such as terrorism and racism could also be discussed.


The teacher constantly models values such as enthusiasm and care in procedures, and attitudes such as the conviction that all people are equal before God, and that we should treat others as such.


We can use narration to identify and support many values.  Examples of narration are incidents and stories in the lives of historical figures who reveal their world views and values.  Examples of interesting people are Lachlan Macquarie, William Bligh, Joan of Arc, Martin Luther, Alexander the Great, Nelson Mandela and Jesus Christ.  Stories could include topics such as the Rum Rebellion, the Eureka Stockade, Mutiny on the Bounty, Battle of Waterloo, Siege of Leningrad, or Operation Barbarossa.

PMI (Developed by Edward De Bono)

This stands for Plus, Minus, and Interesting statements about a value concept under investigation.  It involves listing the good, bad, and interesting aspects of an idea or situation, and encourages students to articulate the value positions in some aspect of history such as the Vietnam War.



          Plus +

         Minus —

     Interesting I

Australians participated




Vietnam veterans returned and were isolated





Problem Solving

We can help students weigh up values by asking them what to do next in problem situations.  Examples of this approach are problems of immigration, and capital punishment for people such as Martin Bryant.


Projects on historical and social issues such as racism, war, colonisation and politics can include a valuing component.

Raising Issues

An issue is a point or idea in question or dispute.  Issues involve competing values and their resolutions reflect world views.  We may for example raise issues such as apartheid, economic systems, revolutions and terrorism in order to have students explore the tensions between desirable but opposing values.


Ranking requires the listing of values statements that students are asked to rank in order of importance or commitment, according to their own or adopted values position.  an example is to list in order of priority four ways in which immigration contributes to Australian society; or list the causes of WW1 in order.    

Role Plays

When students act out roles, they are forced to think about the values the role represents.  For example, we could have a student act out the role of Martin Luther who broke away from established doctrine or Anwar Sadat who changed the attitudes of Arabs to Jews

Semantic Differentials

This strategy is used to determine the emotional force of a concept.  For example, students on the following scale should indicate how they feel about discriminating against women.


exciting                                                                                            boring

right                                                                                     wrong

powerful                                                                                          weak

anger                                                                                               calm

hate                                                                                                 love


Simulations force students to cast themselves in life-like problem situations.  For example, a student can be asked to simulate the justice process associated with transportation.

Visiting Speakers

Visiting speakers present value positions on many topics.  For example, a WW2 veteran or an Aborigine leader from the local area can speak about his or her experience.


Work Experience

Students learn values by visiting historical sites or being part of them.  For example, museums, theme parks such as Old Sydney Town and Sovereign Hill, cemeteries and sacred sites are places where values are learned.



Values are estimates of worth placed on aspects of our experience.  Although it is relatively difficult to assess students’ valuing ability, and harder to estimate the quality of values they hold, some assessment tasks can be helpful in assessing valuing awareness and ability. Many of these tasks are virtually cognitive thinking processes set in an ethical or other valuing context.

1.  Types of Tasks

a     Identify values present in historical conflicts, incidents, peoples’ point of view etc


b     Clarify values by doing the following kinds of things:

·       Explain criteria for why people make choices.

·       Explain why a value priority is held in a given situation.

·       Explain what a value means in its historical context.

·       Explain how a value held relates to an assumption about history, or a world view.


c     Make ethical, religious, social, ecological, aesthetic, and other value judgments in a wide range of contexts.  Reference can be made to clear criteria for making these judgments, and the strength of these criteria.  Examples are:

·       The quality of a perspective, point of view, or argument about an historical issue.

·       The quality of historical data gathering, hypotheses or broader investigations.

·       The quality of a decision or course of action, with criteria given for the judgment.


d     Rank the quality of the values influencing a situation according to a given value priority.


e     Analyse perspectives.  Such analysis can be assessed according to students’ ability to:

·       Identify and articulate points of disagreement on which there is conflict.

·       Articulate a detailed position and /or an opposing position, and the reasoning behind it.

·       Articulate important and appropriate alternatives to be considered.

·       Identify criteria by which alternatives can be assessed.


f      Other assessable valuing abilities:

·       Generate and assess solutions to ethical problems presented by history.

·       Evaluate the weight of historical and other authorities according to moral or other criteria.

·       Make plausible inferences about what might happen in hypothetical situations.  These inferences can be moral, religious, social etc.

·       Distinguish relevant facts from irrelevant ones in determining the morality of a viewpoint, action, war etc.

·       Refine and improve generalisations made about ethical issues.

·       Examine moral or other assumptions about historical incidents.

·       Supply evidence for a moral conclusion drawn about a situation.

·       Give a values-oriented talk about an historical incident.

·       Complete a research assignment on an historical incident, story, or situation embedded with values.

2.  How can attitudes be assessed?

Attitudes can be seen as values revealed in action in the longer-term.  They may be dispositions to behave in certain ways because of values held, or a group of a person’s beliefs organised around situations, people or objects, and held over time.  They are difficult to put marks to, so should be thought of in different ways to values when assessing students.


·       First, students need to be aware of what desirable attitudes about historical study are, and why they are important.

·       It is important to look for changes in attitudes if students’ attitudes are different to the intended ones early in the year.

·       Assessment of attitudes can be based on observation of students over the whole of the course, not just on isolated incidents.

·       Observation of students' attitudes needs to occur in contexts where students are likely to display their attitudes — field trips, practicals, projects, discussions and seminars, and records kept by using rating scales and/or criteria listings.

·       Observation of students' attitudes can be done by:

 -  Teacher assessment — the standard method.

 -  Self-assessment — here students assess themselves.  Students can be surprisingly honest and perceptive about their own attitudes.

 -  Peer assessment — here a student is assessed by his/her peers.  This can bring out some revealing insights that may not have been apparent to the teachers.  However, care must be taken here.

·       Besides observation, student attitudes can be assessed by completion of questionnaires or by the expressing of their opinions in essays.  An example is "Should there be a White Australia Policy?"

·       A number of other valuing activities have been explained in this framework in the section "Strategies For Teaching Valuing."  These approaches to teaching values could also be used as a way of recording attitudes and attitude change.  Examples of these are checklists, choosing between value statements, consequences charts, Likert scales, PMI statements, semantic differentials and "I" statements.

3.      How can students' attitudes be recognised and reported?

·       Marks— Attitudes could be given a weighting when compiling the overall course mark (eg 10% or less).  This could be as part of a test or as part of continuous assessment.

·       Profiles  — A listing of desired attitudes could be made and then either:

 -   Indicate on a check list those which are observed (based on reflection or impressions over the term, or accumulated check lists);

 -  Report only those observed (based on reflection or impressions over the term, or accumulated check lists);  In this way teachers can build a description of a set of attitudes students hold about history.

·       Rating Scales — Use a four or five point rating scale (based on reflection over a timeframe such as a whole term).

·       Descriptive statements  — Assessments could be referred to when completing reports or testimonials which describe students more subjectively.









Historical Concepts       .         .         .         .         .                   .         34

Suggestions For Developing A Christian Perspective                       37

Quotations Associated With Some Concepts        .                             .41



Concepts are an important part of history.  The list below is a brief introduction to the array of possible historical concepts that help convey a Christian perspective of history.


The varying ability of individuals and groups to influence the thoughts and actions of others.

The established right of an individual or group to determine policies, pronounce judgements, and promote interests.

Biblical Perspective:

A viewpoint emphasising the evidence of divine purposes and principles as found in the study of history.  A clear understanding of the course of human history is not possible without a knowledge of the origin, nature and destiny of man, biblical principles and prophecy.

Career Awareness:

An understanding and appreciation of the wide diversity of occupational choices, the ways in which individuals make these choices, and that occupational choices should not be limited because of racial, sexual or ethnic stereotypes.


A continuing process resulting from the interplay of a multiplicity of factors or events which is reflected in ideological, religious, social, political and economic systems and their effect on various cultures.


The status of being a member of a state or nation.  It involves appreciating the rights, responsibilities and privileges of belonging to a society.


A state or condition of discord, dissension or strife arising over contradictory ideas and interests.  The expression and clarification of a variety of views.

Conflict Management:

The resolution of conflict through compromise, bargaining and respect for the rights of others.


The act whereby God produced this universe and provides all that is necessary to sustain life.


The sum total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings, which is transmitted from one generation to another.


A system of acceptable conduct developed by a society for the purpose of governing human relationships which is modified over time.


The basic societal unit for the development of social and spiritual relationships.


The supreme being with whom a loving, trusting relationship may be developed.

Good and Evil:

Opposing forces in history which influence human wellbeing for better or worse.  Mankind and his environment exhibit the results of the universal conflict between Christ and Satan.

Gospel Commission:

The commandment of God to Christians to commit themselves to Biblical religious faith and share it with others.


A mode of life which includes attributes of efficient management of personal resources and moderation and balance in living habits.


An intelligent being with the power of choice by which personal destiny is determined.


The rightness or wrongness of human behaviour and conduct based on scriptural ethical principles.


That trait or characteristic of a people which is exemplified by devotion to, or advocacy of our national interests or national unity and independence.


An irrational attitude of hostility or favour directed toward an individual, a group, a race, or their supposed characteristics.


Elements of the environment that can be utilised and managed for the satisfaction of needs and wants.

Seventh-day Adventist World View:

A set of interrelated basic assumptions and values which together dispose SDA’s to see the world in a particular way.  The SDA student makes sense of the world and develops a personal world view through understanding the concepts listed in this framework.

Spacial Relationships:

The proximity between natural, human, cultural, economic and political elements.


The implications and influence of advancing knowledge about materials, equipment and processes on the community, the nation and the world.  The systematic application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes.

The history of technological advance, however, reveals both positive and negative effects on man's cultural, social, economic and religious life.


An awareness of the chronology of events in the development of societies.

The effect of distance, geography, time and technology on the events of history.


An indisputable fact or principle which accurately conforms with reality.  Truth does not change, but because man's ability to comprehend it is limited, his perception of truth may change over time.


The analysis of factors that have contributed to human dislocations and to basic changes in living patterns.




The following list contains suggestions showing how students may develop a Christian perspective of history by studying historical concepts.

Authority and Power:

·       Use documentary and other evidence to examine the power of individuals and groups.

·       Analyse the effect that the use and abuse of power plays upon the course of human history.

·       Examine the ways by which those in authority maintain and lose their power.

Biblical Perspective:

·       Understand that God is interested in each individual.

·       Recognise God's involvement in the rise and fall of nations.

·       Describe ways in which the spread of Christianity has influenced the affairs of mankind.

·       Describe the consequences of the conflict between Christ and Satan evidenced in history.


·       Explain the significance of change as it is reflected in ideological, religious, social, political and economic systems.

·       Explain how people have coped with and adapted to change.

·       Identify major causative factors in historical change, for example wars, famines, natural disasters, exploration and charismatic leadership.


·       Understand the importance of social harmony.

·       Understand that conflict may arise out of constructive or destructive differences.

·       Identify and explain ways in which historical conflicts have been managed and resolved.

·       Recognise that the ultimate solution to conflict lies in the outworking of God's purpose in human affairs.

Conflict Management:

·       From historical examples, identify, evaluate and establish the commonality of key issues in national and international conflict situations.

·       Select and analyse examples of effective conflict management from a range of historical examples.

·       Tabulate key principles that have proved effective as a basis of conflict resolution.

Controversy Between Good and Evil:

·       Discover evidences of the conflict between good and evil as demonstrated in history.

·       Identify the elements of God's government and contrast these with other forms of government, for example democracy and totalitarianism, openness and secretness.


·       Identify examples of cooperative activity which have led to major social amelioration.

·       Analyse examples of national and international cooperation which have achieved marked or even global benefits for mankind and the environment.

·       From historical examples, establish criteria for identifying those problems best solved through cooperative activity.

Critical Thinking:

·       Make and test hypotheses, use relevant information, develop generalisations and re-evaluate original hypotheses.

·       Recognise bias in historical writing and identify underlying assumptions.


·       Engage in simulation exercises, role playing and other vicarious experiences that will facilitate the internalisation of values and beliefs upheld by historical persons of merit.


·       Examine the effects of religious oppression on migration patterns

·       Examine various views of freedom and differentiate between freedom and licence.

·       Understand ways by which intellectual, social, cultural, legal and political factors effect freedom.

·       Understand that individual freedom presupposes the exercise of individual responsibility.


·       Recognise that God has a purpose for each individual's life.

·       Understand that the principles of freedom and responsibility are inherent in the laws of God. 

·       Recognise that while God is ultimately in control he has given man free choice.

Gospel Commission:

·       Identify with the spiritual, physical, mental and emotional needs of his fellow man.

·       Internalise the concept of service and demonstrate this through taking the roles of a good citizen, concerned neighbour and Christian witness.


·       Examine key figures in history and analyse their behaviours with regard to the degree of integrity demonstrated.

·       Assess the influence of those who have made decisions based on integrity rather than expediency.

·       Evaluate the effect on world history of governments and nations that have acted with integrity.


·       Identify and study the achievements of men and women who have championed the cause of justice and equity.

·       Analyse the basic principles which underlie the justice system in society and relate these to the Decalogue.

·       Evaluate the effects on a nation or society which chooses to ignore basic principles of justice.


·       Demonstrate a respect for the worth of man in attitude and through acts of service. 

·       Plan and participate in activities that will provide opportunity to develop skill in the decision making process.

Morality and Ethics:

·       Identify and study examples of individuals who have demonstrated high moral and ethical behaviour in both personal and public life.

·       Identify examples of moral or ethical positions and trace the consequences of espousing them.

·       Trace and evaluate the social, political, religious and economic consequences where national leaders or governments have defied moral and ethical values.

·       Explore the relationships between ethical order, God's judgements and the second coming of Christ.


·                Recognise evidences of nationalistic patriotism in the country.

·                Understand the role nationalism has played in promoting conflict between nations.

·                Identify ideological, economic, social and political factors which may lead to conflicts between nations.

·                Analyse movements within societies that contribute to the realisation of self-determination.


·       Identify personal and others' biases in historical judgement.

·       Weigh conflicting evidence and arrive at tentative conclusions.

·       Demonstrate respect for differing interpretations of historical data.


·       Use a variety of data gathering skills in acquiring historical information.

·       Use a variety of processing skills in organising the accumulated data into logical sequence and coherent units.

·       Use effective communication skills in presenting historical ideas to others.

·       Develop skills in obtaining oral history about the church, family, local community and region.


·       Describe behaviour by nations which indicate respect for the rights and property of others and contrast this with behaviour which indicates prejudice.

·       Identify present national and international problems which have their roots in a failure to recognise the worth and dignity of others. 

·       Evaluate the importance of the country's social and patriotic symbols in establishing and maintaining national self-respect.


·       Identify and evaluate the behaviours of historical figures in terms of the degree to which they have exhibited social responsibility.

·       Identify and analyse turning points in human history where responsible acts have determined new directions for mankind.


·       Work independently to find solutions to historical problems.

·       Select an historical problem and independently develop investigative procedures, gather data, evaluate the data against criteria, and arrive at tentative conclusions.


·       Demonstrate sensitivity when passing judgment on the motivations of historical persons.

·       Treat historical data in a sensitive way, particularly when the data includes facts adverse to the reputation of a person.


·       Identify examples of what is perceived as selfless service and assess the validity of the perception.

·       Identify the motivation behind selfless human endeavour, for example the spread of Christian missions, the abolition of slavery and the beginnings of nursing service.

·       Analyse the achievement of those who have led in major social reform.


·       Identify the positive benefits of technological advancement, for example economic and social improvement, health care and longevity, and improved communications.

·       Identify the negative influences of technological advancement, for example increased destructive power, depersonalisation and increased materialism.

·       Assess the degree of importance technology has played in the events of history.

Time and Space Relationships:

·       Recognise sequence and chronology in distinguishing the past from the present.

·       Analyse conditions of time and space that have influenced international relationships.

·       Analyse how the compression of time and space has affected local society, national development and international relationships.


·       Explore examples of tolerance and intolerance, as provided by history, and evaluate the long-term effects of both values.

·       Evaluate the influence of dissenters and reformers in bringing about social, religious and political change.


·       Determine the validity of truth by separating fact from opinion.

·       Demonstrate understanding of the process of arriving at an understanding of the past by identifying and assessing facts;  distinguishing between substantial and insubstantial evidence;  separating the process of searching for truth from the acceptance of propaganda;  and examining historical evidence in a constructive and unbiased manner.

World Religions:

·       Examine examples of human exploitation justified in the name of religion.

·       Identify the causes and effects of large scale conquests conducted by religious zealots.

·       Analyse the characteristics and influence of Christian world conquest carried out in the spirit of the Gospel Commission.


Authority and Power:

" ... For there is no power but of God ... "  Romans. 13:1


"Compelling power is formed only under Satan's government.  The Lord's principles are not of this order.  His authority rests upon goodness, mercy, and love; ... God's government is moral, and truth and love are to be the prevailing power ... "  DA 759

Biblical Perspective:

"He removeth kings and setteth up kingdoms."  Daniel. 2:21


"Thy Word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path."  Psalms. 119:105


"In the Word of God the curtain is drawn aside and we behold, behind, above, and through all the play and counterplay of human interest and power and passions, the agencies of the all-merciful One, silently, patiently working out the counsels of his will."  Ed 173


"But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end:  many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased."  Daniel. 12:4


"Great changes are soon to take place in our world."  9T 11


"Peculiar and rapid changes will soon take place ... " 6T 436


"Rejoicing in hope; patient in tribulation, continuing instant in prayer."    Romans. 12:12


"There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to man:  but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it." 

1 Corinthians 10:13


"These things I have spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace.  In the world ye shall have tribulation:  but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world."  John 16:33


The conditions of the world shows that troublous times are right upon us.  The daily papers are full of indications of a terrible conflict in the near future.  9T 12

Conflict Management:

"But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment:  and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council:  but whosoever shall say, thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire."  Matthew. 5:22, 23


"A soft answer turneth away wrath."  Proverbs 15:1.


"...Thy brother hath aught against thee...First be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift."  "...If thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone."  Matt 5:23, 24 and Matt 18:15


"As members of the human family we are individual parts of one mighty whole.  No soul can be made independent of the rest.  There is to be no party strife in the family of God;  ... No partition walls are to be built up between man and man.  Christ as the great centre must unite all in one."  FE 479.

Controversy Between Good and Evil:

"And I'll put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed.  It shall bruise thy head and thou shalt bruise his heel."  Genesis. 3:15


"The student should gain a knowledge of its grand central theme of God's original purpose for the world, of the rise of the great controversy, and of the work of redemption.  He should understand the nature of the two principles that are contending for the supremacy, and should learn to trace their working through in the records of history and prophecy, to the great consummation.  He should see how this controversy enters into every phase of human experience."  CT 462


"They helped every one his neighbour; and every one said to his brother, Be of good courage.  Isaiah. 41:6


"The things of earth are more closely connected with heaven, and are more directly under the supervision of Christ, than many realise.  All right inventions and improvements have their source in Him who is wonderful in counsel and excellent in working ... Whatever we do, wherever we are placed, He desires to control our minds, that we may do perfect work...


Christianity and business, rightly understood, are not two separate things; they are one.  Bible religion is to be brought into all that we do and say.  Human and divine agencies are to combine in temporal as well as spiritual achievements."  CT 277

Critical Thinking:

"Come now, and let us reason together, saith the Lord."  Isaiah. 1:18


"Those who cannot impartially examine the evidence of a position that differs from theirs are not fit to teach in any department of God's cause."  R&H, Feb 18, 1890


"Every human being, created in the image of God, is endowed with a power akin to that of the Creator individuality, power to think and to do.  It is the work of true education to develop this power, to train the youth to be thinkers, and not mere reflectors of other man's thoughts."  Ed 17


"For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; ... " Hebrews. 4:15


"This world is the field of man's labor ... He is designed of God to be a blessing to society; and he cannot, if he would, live and die to himself.  God has bound us together as members of one family, and this relationship everyone is bound to cherish."  4T 339


"And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free."  John 8:32


"The youth have an inborn love of liberty; they desire freedom;  and they need to understand that these inestimable blessings are to be enjoyed only in obedience to the law of God.  This law is the preserver of true freedom and liberty."  Ed 291


"In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.  The same was in the beginning with God.  All things were made by him and without him was not any thing made that was made."  John 1:1-3


"And we have known and believed the love that God hath to us.  God is love; and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God in him."  1 John 4:16


"The Godhead was stirred with pity for the race, and the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit gave themselves to the working out of the plan of redemption."   CH 222

Gospel Commission:

"Go ye therefore and teach all nations ... " Matthew 28:19, 20


"Lord, who shall abide in thy tabernacle?  Who shall dwell in thy holy hill? ... He that sweareth to his own hurt and changeth not."  Psalms 15:1, 4


"The just man walketh in his integrity:  his children are blessed after him."   Proverbs 20:7

"The true teacher is not satisfied with second-rate work.  He is not satisfied with directing his students to a standard lower than the highest which it is possible for them to attain ... It is his ambition to inspire them with principles of truth, obedience, honour, integrity, and purity principles that will make them a positive force for the stability and uplifting of society."  Ed 29, 30


"He hath showed thee, O man, what is good; and what doth the Lord require of thee but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God."  Micah 6:8


"Men cannot depart from the counsel of God, and still return that calmness and wisdom which will enable them to act with justice and discretion."  PP 658


"So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them."  Genesis 1:27


"Wherefore by one man sin entered into the world and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned." 

Romans 5:12


"There is neither Jew nor Greek, bond nor free, there is neither male nor female:  for ye are all one in Christ Jesus."  Galatians 3:28


"Man was to bear God's image, both in outward resemblance and in character ... He was holy and happy in bearing the image of God, and in perfect obedience to his will."  PP 45

Morality and Ethics:

"Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things."  Philippians. 4:8


"Every power physical, mental, and moral needs to be trained, disciplined, and developed, that it may render its highest service; for unless all are equally developed, one faculty cannot do its work thoroughly without overtaxing some part of the human machinery."  5T 522


"Is it lawful for you to scourge a man that is a Roman, and uncondemned?"   Acts 22:25


"We, by contrast, are citizens of heaven."  Philippians. 3:20 (NEB)


"The Saviour was above all prejudice of nations or people; He was willing to extend the blessings and privileges of the Jews to all who would accept the light which He came to the world to bring."  5BC 1134


"Study to show thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the Word of truth."  2 Timothy. 2:15


"God is moving upon every mind that is open to receive the impressions of His Holy Spirit ... " ML 63


"To the honoured rabbi at the night conference on the Mount of Olives, the despised woman at the well of Sychar, He opened his richest treasures; for in these hearers He discerned the impressive heart, the open mind, the receptive spirit."  Ed 231


"For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line;  here a little and there a little."  Isaiah. 28:10


"No effort should be spared to establish right habits of study."  CT 136


"Honour thy father and thy mother:  that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee."  Exodus 20:12


"Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them:  for this is the law and the prophets."  Matthew 7:12


"Christ recognised no distinctions of nationality or rank or creed ... Christ came to break down every wall of partition."  9T 190


"True courtesy is not learned by the mere practice of rules of etiquette ... It ignores caste.  It teaches self-respect, respect for the dignity of man as man, a regard for every member of the great human brotherhood."  Ed 240


"So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God."  Romans 14:12


" ... the strength of nations, as of individuals, is not found in the opportunities or facilities that appear to make them invincible;  it is not found in their boasted greatness.  It is measured by the fidelity with which they fulfil God's purpose." 

Ed 175


"I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith."   2 Timothy 4:7


"A noble character is the result of self discipline."


"And be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God for Christ's sake hath forgiven you."  Ephesians. 4:32


"The Saviour never suppressed the truth, but He uttered it always in love.  In His intercourse with others, He exercised greatest tact, and he was always kind and thoughtful.  He was never rude, never needlessly spoke a severe word, never gave unnecessary pain to a sensitive soul ... He never made truth cruel, but ever manifested a deep tenderness for humanity."  GW 117


"We then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves."  Romans 15:1


"In the kingdoms of the world, position meant self-aggrandisement.  The people were supposed to exist for the benefit of the ruling classes...


Christ was establishing a kingdom on different principles.  He called man, not to authority, but to service, the strong to bear the infirmities of the weak.  Power, position, talent, education, placed their possessor under the greater obligation to serve his fellows."  DA 550


"But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words and seal the book, even to the time of the end:  many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased."  Daniel 12:14


"True education does not ignore the value of scientific knowledge or literacy acquirements; but above information it values power, above power, goodness; and above intellectual acquirements, character."  Ed 225

Time and Space Relationships:

"To everything there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven."  Ecclesiastes 3:1


"Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth?  Declare, if thou hast understanding.  Who hath laid the measure thereof, if thou knowest?  Or who hath stretched the line upon it?  Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened?  Or who laid the corner stone thereof ... "  Job 38:4-6


"Judge not, that ye be not judged."  Matt. 7:1


"A uniform cheerfulness, tender kindness, Christian benevolence, patience, and love will melt away prejudice, and open the heart to the reception of the truth."  EV 543


"Thy law is the truth."  Psalms 119:142


"Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life:  no man cometh unto the Father, but by me."  John 14:6


"The Bible unfolds truth with a simplicity and a perfect adaptation to the needs and longings of the human heart, that has astonished and charmed the most highly cultivated minds ... The more he searches the Bible, the deeper is his conviction that it is the word of the living God, and human reason bows before the majesty of divine revelation.  5T 700

World Religions:

"For all the gods of the nations are idols, but the Lord made the heavens." 

1 Chronicles 16:26


"Every heathen nation has had its great teachers and religious systems offering some other means of redemption than Christ ... Millions of human beings are bound down under false religions, in the bondage of slavish fear, of stolid indifference, toiling like beasts of burden, bereft of hope or joy or aspiration here, and with only a dull fear of the hereafter.  It is the gospel of the grace of God alone that can uplift the soul."  DA 478